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linear until satiationType Ilinear then efficiency slows with more prey (pelican eating fish, more fish caught = more time to handle)Type IIlow prey consumption at low densities, handling time becomes limiting at high densitiesType IIIzero-growth isoclines are when a population is not growing or shrinkingIsocline Analysispredators influencing prey by killing them (lethal)Consumptive effectsevery other effect predators can have on prey (non-lethal)Non-consumptive effects-Inducible defenses -Behavioral defensesPrey can adjust to the presence of predatorscamouflage, becoming harder to findCrypsisspines, shellsMechanical Defensesfoul-smelling, toxic chemicals, poisons, venomsChemical Defenses-only beneficial if the predator doesn't get killed or eaten -predators must know that the prey is poisoningPoisonsThe bright coloration of animals with effective physical or chemical defenses that acts as a warning to predatorsAposematic colorationusing a well-known pattern (like that of an organism already with aposematic coloration) --> quicker predator learning TOXICMullaerian mimicryA type of mimicry in which a harmless species looks like a species that is poisonous or otherwise harmful to predators.Batesian Mimicrywhen organisms rely on the same limiting resources, the use of the resource by one organism means that another cannot use it to the same extentCompetitionbetween speciesInterspecificwithin speciesIntrasepcificindirect competition for a shared resource, making resource less available for othersExploitative competitionrestriction of access, e.g. by aggression or by occupying a space to the exclusion of othersInterference competitionAggressive interactions (fighting) Alleopathy (biochemical warfare)Examples of interference competitionlaw stating that a population increases until the supply of the most limiting resource prevents it from increasing furtherLeibig's law of the minimumcompetition exclusion principle: two species competing for the same limited resource cannot co-existCorollarywhen a species is excluded/eliminated from a habitat by competitionCompetitive exclusiona species functional morphology differences in the presence vs. absence of a competitorcharacter displacementspecies with the ability to live at the lowest requirements for the limiting resource becomes dominant -often more complicated in natureTilman's R* Theory-abiotic factors -disturbances -predation/herbivoryCompetition can be altered by external factorsJ. Connell's Barnacle Experimentwhen something happens that reduces the density of organisms (like a hurricane) -fire adapted forestDisturbance-Predators (an herbivores) can also remove competitive dominants -Paine's sea stars (mussels)Predationoccurs indirectly between two species which are both preyed upon by the same predatorApparent competitioninsects may improve the conditions of other insects feeding on the same plantFacilitationcaused by phloem feeders facilitate the growth of others -nutrients absorbed faster than releasedNutrient Sinksassociations between species which is beneficial to bothMutualismsthe interacting species live in close proximity/association with each other most of their livesSymbiotic mutualismMutuliastic interaction where the mutualists live independent lives yet cannot survive without each other. Ex: bees and flowering plantsnon-symbiotic mutualismmutualism in which both species can survive alonefacultative mutualismone species cannot survive without the otherobligate mutualisman evolutionary force, the coupling of two species as a beneficial bond becomes a saltational event, allowing a lead into a new adaptive zone and the exploitation of novel ecological nichesMutualism as a creative forceacquisition of mutualist confers the ability to exploit a new resource (termites and their gut microbiota)Exploitative (or nutritional)plants provide a protected domicile, such as stems or thorns for ants to nest in exchanging antiherbivore protectionProtectivetransportation of propagates (seeds, fruits), the transmission of pollen from one plant to anotherDisperal/transmissionthe internally coordinated responses (actions or inactions) of whole living organisms (individuals or groups to internal or external stimulus)Behavior-stimulus -internal processor -response_________ ------> __________1) Function 2) Phylogeny 3) Mechanism 4) OtogenyHow does your dog howl? (4 TINNBERG STEPS)-How does the behavior improve survival or reproductive success? -Communication & locating other members of your packFunction (adaptation)How has the behavior changed over time?Phylogeny (evolutionary)What factors (usually internal) have resulted in this behavior? -How physiologically does my dog howl?Mechanism (causation)How does the behavior change as the organism develops? -Answering the why question over a developmental time spanOtogeny (development)animal communication is the transfer of information from one animal (or group of animals), called senders, to one or more animals, called receivers, that affects the current or future behavior of the receiversCommunication & Signalingmultimodal pathwaysAnimals communicate usingConflict typically leads to pressure for honesty -Deer pronking along the beach to show its energy and speedConflict between 2 animals may also drive the evolution of signals in ways that more or less conspicuous signals may prevail-Forced recipient of communicative stimuli used to aid in formulating individual response -Deception using eavesdropping, fork tailed drongos mimic meerkats to steal prey -After exposure to go-away call, dik diks increase immediate runningEavesdropping-natural selection can powerfully shape behavior, but adaptive behavior does NOT mean that every aspect of an animal's behavior is perfect -ex: sexual selectionAdaptiveness of behavior100% count of a populationCensusa subsamplesurvey-Quadrant -Transect -Camera traps -Bird surveys --visual bird count --auditory bird count --playback survey --mist nettingMethods of surveying communitythe number of unique species presentSpecies Richnesstakes into account some amount of evenness or unevennessDiversityhow similar species abundances are to each otherEvennessA diversity index or value that measures species richness as well as relative abundance (or evenness) Also known as H'.Shannon-Wiener Indexlocal scale diversity (e.g. # of species in a community)Alpha Diversitymeasure of difference in species composition or species turnover between 2 or more habitats/sites/communities in a broader regionBeta Diversityspecies richness in the broader regionGamma diversitypresence-absence J = AnB/AuBJaccard Indexvacuumed up insects from plants with and without nets to see the impact of birds eating the insectsBird exclusion experimentpredators consume each other and compete with each other for resourcesintra-guild predationstronger predation, high insect density, low plant defenseDensity-dependent predationecosystem service -birds feeding on insects reduces biomass damage by 39%Pest control is anconsumption changes the density of prey, ripples through food webDensity-mediated effectsDensity at one feeding level increases, which reduces prey of another species, and, in turn results in an increase of the prey of the second species Top-down: predator effects Bottom-up: producer effectsDensity-mediated indirect effectthe impact predators have on non-prey organisms through changing prey traits -snails fled when sea stars introducedTrait-mediated indirect interactiona change in an ecosystem that shifts it from its original course or state in a way that species abundances are negatively impactedDisturbanceability of a community to maintain a particular structureStabilityhow much (or little) a community changes when disturbedReistancethe ability of a community to rebound and recover from a disturbanceResilienceHuman causedAnthropgenic disturbancesmoderate levels (frequency, intensity, duration) of disturbance maintain higher levels of biodiversityIntermediate Disturbances Hypothesis-the sequential change of a community over time -primary or secondaryEcological SuccessionSuccession following a disturbance that destroys a community without destroying the soilSecondary Successionthe impacts that a particular species has on community development due to prior arrival at a site -FACILITATION -INHIBITIONPriority Effectsorganisms with one type of "feeding" make it harder for other types to establish INHIBITIONTrophic group amensalismwhen there are multiple states that are resistant to change -coral reefs vs. macroalgae-dominated statesalternative stable statesWhy do species occur where they do? What makes some places more/less biodiverse than others?Biogeographycentered around the equator (rainfall & temperature correlation)Global Biodiversitya hypothesis that sites with higher amounts of energy are able to support more species and larger populationsEnergy-diversity hypothesis1) Speciation is faster in the tropics 2) Extinction is slower in the tropics 3) the tropics have been suitable for life for longer 4) It's harder to change habitats and most species originated in tropics-like conditionsBasic mechanisms of theoriesall the species contained within a region (gamma diversity)Regional species poolthe process of sorting species in the regional pool among localities according to their adaptations and interactionsSpecies sortinga theory that demonstrates the dual importance of habitat size and distance in determining species richnesstheory of island biogeographyNatural habitats are becoming increasingly fragmented and isolated --> more vulnerable to extinctionHabitat Fragmentatiiona change in species composition physical conditions or other ecological factors at the boundary between two ecosystemsEdge Effects-Exposed to sunlight -Exposed to predators -WarmerWhat might be different on the edge of a forest compared to deep inside a forest?distance from the island to other potential islands (or mountain tops)Distance MattersColonization Local extinction SpeciationHow can species richness change on an island?Equilibirum theory of island biogeographyinteractions of organisms, built structures, the physical environment, where people are concentratedUrban EcologyMovement of people from rural areas to cities -densification -outward expansionUrbanization-Common bloodlines -Intimate Relationships -Communal behaviorStarted from village culture-Distant bloodlines -Unfamiliar relationships -Competitive behaviorUrban culture3000-4000 bc Mesopotamia pop: 50,000 Chongqing, China: 30.5 millionPopulation shifts-Albedo and the urban health island effect -pollution/acid rain -greenhouse gases -geochemical cyclingUrbanization Effect on EnvironmentTemp in cities is usually a couple degrees higher then rural/suburb areas Rock, cement, concrete & buildings absorb heat Cities concentrate heat producing things (cars, factories, people).urban island heat effectthe introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change (NOISE, HEAT, LIGHT)PollutionFireflies emit light to attract mates, in MD, 50% decrease in flashes due to artifical light -Hatchling sea turtlesLight Pollution effects-particulate condensation enhances precipitation 5-10% -Surface runoff increases, water filtration decreasesWater cycleauto and factory emissionCarbon Cycle-Habitat fragmentation/degradation -Rectillinearization, edge effects -HomogenizationHow does urbanization affect habitats?process by which a natural habitat becomes incapable of supporting its native species, usually the sites are displaced or destroyedhabitat destructiona reduction in the quality of a habitat that leads to reduced survival or reproductive successhabitat degradationa large expanse of habitat is transformed into a number of smaller patches of smaller total area isolate from each other by a matrix of habitats unlike the originalhabitat fragmentation-Built area with green cover (tiny places covered with plants) -Created greenspace (intensively used or maintained by ppl) -Semi-natural greenspace: resembles natural but significantly altered by people -Natural areas: unplanted, little human usageWhat forms of habitats do we find in cities?changes in populations or communities that occur at the boundary of two or more habitats -soft edges can cause more biodiversity "buffer zone"Edge effectscontained by, consisting of, or moving in straight line or linesRectillinearthe increasing similarity between two previously distinct biological places (FL vs LA)Homogenization-can cause increase of decrease -Increase: trade, shipping, spread of invasive species -increases biodiversity of non-native species while reducing that of native species, overall reduction of SPECIES RICHNESS and increase in total biomass and SPECIES ABUNDANCEHow does urbanization affect biodiversity in communities, populations, species?can use and exploit the resources available in urban envrionmentsUrban exploiterssensitive to human-induced land use changeUrban avoidersnew species adapted to urban environmentAnthropogenic speciesNon-native: have been introduced from elsewhere (same w exotic) Invasive: spread autonomously and often have adverse affectsNon-native vs. exotic vs. invasivespecies that benefit from humansSynanthropicspecies that do not benefit from humansnon-synanthropicbeing accustomed to new climate or to new conditionsAcclimationthe ability of one genotype to produce more than one phenotype when exposed to diff. envs.Phenotypic plasticitya change or the process of change by which an organism or species becomes better suited to its environmentAdaptation-Efficient digestive system -ability to rapidly produce offspring -exploitersWild Boars-high places to sit -other flying birds -use heat from buildings -city lights for night huntingPeregrine falcons-innovations -medical tech. -agriculture -agriculture techWhat causes human pop. growth to behave differently?-the timing of life cycle events -all get ****ed up like temps. and shitClimate Change Phenology-Land degradation -Habitat fragmentationLand change uses-lakes, rivers, and oceans becoming enriches with nutrients that run off land -often leads to extreme growth of algaeEutrophication-alternative stable state of oceans favoring jelliesGelenizationprovisioning, regulating, cultural, supportingECOSYSTEM SERVICESproviding food, water, tiber, etc.Provisioningcontrolling other factors (disease/climate/erosion)Regulationrecreation, spiritual, tourismCulturalbig picture, long-term processes (photosynthesis, etc)Supporting$120 trillionWorth of global ecosystem servicesthe impairment of health from exposure to a pathogen, pollutant, toxinDiseasean organism or particle which derives nutrients from its host at the expense of host (bacteria, virus, prion, fungi, parasites)Pathogenhost, pathogen, environmentDisease Triangleliving organism that can transmit infectious diseases between hostsVectora fungal infection that dehydrates hibernating bats, causing them to wake too early in search of water and food and they dieWhite Nose Syndromewhether a potential host is able to contract an infectionsusceptibilityA simple model of disease dynamics that tracks the population as it enters and leaves three categories: Susceptible, Infectious and Recovered or RemovedSIR modelBacterial pathogen infect abalone gut and cease feeding, disease exacerbated in warm temps.Abalone withering syndromepassing of infectious, pathogenic unit from one host to anotherTransmission-sea star associated densovirus -affects all sea stars on west coast -waste away -disrupted kelp forest food chainsea star wasting diseasethe transmission and adaptation of a pathogen to a new hostHost jump-infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus -hemorrhage and swollen eyes -economic threat -jump from salmon to trout How did this happen?IHNV in salmonid fishhumans coevolved with gut microflora, helminth parasites -in modern societies, parasite are eliminated -absence of parasites in the developed world would cause an imbalance (hyperactive immune system) -auto-immune, allergic, and inflammatory disease abound"Old friends" hypothesis