9/17/19 [Exam 1]
Terms in this set (24)
How do other tissues in the body respond when there is low plasma glucose?
-they start catabolism of macromolecules
What happens to the products of catabolism?
-they are sent to the liver
-they are then turned into glucose for the brain
What does adipose do when the body is in a fasted state?
-adipose cells break fatty acids off triglycerides and release glycerol and fatty acids into the blood
What happens to the glycerol?
-it is converted into glucose via gluconeogenesis
What happens to free fatty acids in the fasted state?
-they are turned into ketone bodies in the liver through beta oxidation
What happens to glycerol from the adipose stores?
-it undergoes gluconeogenesis and is converted into glucose
What happens in skeletal muscle in fasted-state metabolism?
-skeletal muscle breaks down glycogen
-the glycogen byproducts go to the liver
-the liver can make glucose for the brain
What does beta oxidation do?
-turns fatty acids into acyl units and ketones
What are the two different types of metabolic pathways?
What are anabolic pathways?
-build large molecules
What are catabolic pathways?
-break down large molecules
What is the fed state considered to be?
What is the fasted state considered to be?
What is resting metabolic rate?
-energy expenditure measured after 12 hour fast in human who is resting but awake in a controlled environment
What is basal metabolic rate?
the rate at which the body uses energy while at rest to keep vital functions going, such as breathing and keeping warm.
What is metabolic rate affected by?
-age, gender, lean muscle mass, activity level, diet hormones, genetics
What are the two ways that we measure metabolic rate?
What is direct calorimetry?
-measures the energy content of food
-you are in a box that is closed
What is indirect calorimetry?
-measures oxygen consumption
What do indirect calorimetry values tell us?
-how much energy is released from food for every liter of oxygen consumed
What is the value of indirect calorimetry for carbs?
What is the value of indirect calorimetry for fats?
What is the value of indirect calorimetry for proteins?
What do we ultimately measure with indirect calorimetry?
amount of O2 consumed to the amount of heat produced
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