10/24/19 [Lecture 2]
Terms in this set (40)
For the cardiovascular system, what structures are going to control resistance?
What is the analogous structure in the respiratory system that controls resistance?
Explain the structure of the bronchioles
-the bronchioles are a branch of the respiratory system that contain no cartilage, simple epithelium and rich layers of smooth muscle
-the layers of the smooth muscle are under control of various ligands and chemical
What affects the diameter and resistance of the bronchioles?
What does CO2 do to the diameter and resistance of the bronchioles?
-has a bronchodilating effect
-increased concentrations in expired air
-relaxes smooth muscle and causes dilation
What does histamine do?
-helps to avoid breathing in too many toxic materials
-part of the allergic response
-you get bronchoconstriction to help avoid bringing more air into the lungs that may be
pathogenic or dangerous
-this is okay as long as it is not anaphylaxis
What does the parasympathetic response of the ANS do with resistance of the bronchioles?
-there is not an antagonistic effect
-it is not antagonistic
-there are muscarinic receptors that can cause bronchoconstriction but it is not
-sympathetic branch plays more of a significant role
-more sympathetic response=more bronchodilation
-less sympathetic response=normal dilation not necessarily constriction
What does the sympathetic branch of the ANS do with resistance of the bronchioles?
-there are beta-2 receptors
-there are a lot of beta 2 receptors because it helps vasodilate
-epinephrine binds to beta 2 receptors and causes bronchodilation so that you
can breathe easier
What is Boyle's law?
-relates the volume of a container and the pressure the air within the container exerts
-explains how changing the volume of the container changes the pressure of the air
-decreasing volume increases collisions and increases pressure
How do we change lung volume to change pressure gradient of alveoli?
-via skeletal muscles
-the skeletal muscles that attach to the ribs and the bottom of the ribcage is going to change the volume of the lungs
Is inspiration an active or passive process?
How is inspiration an active process?
-in order to breathe you have to contract muscles
Is expiration an active or passive process?
How is expiration a passive process?
-you do not have to contract any muscles at all
-there is such thing as active expiration but not a lot
How does the diaphragm move?
. diaphragm is going to contract (60-75% of volume change)
-lung volume is going to increase
-pressure inside the lung is going to decrease
-there is a gradient between the lungs and the atmosphere and air comes into the lungs
-air will keep flowing into the lungs until the pressure is equal
What happens when you relax the diaphragm?
-you are going to decrease the volume of the lungs
-pressure is going to increase and now air flows out of the lungs and into the atmosphere
What causes volume change?
Does all the air we breathe in get used in gas exchange?
Why doesn't all of the air you breathe in get used in gas exchange with the alveoli?
What is tidal volume?
-a single breath (in and or single breath out)
What is the air we breathe out a mixture of?
-the air we breathe out if a mixture of the air in the alveoli and the air in the
Can you breathe out all of the air in the conducting zone?
What happens when you breathe in?
500 mL of air that comes in it going to push 150 mL stale air from the alveoli previously back to the alveoli
-of the 500 mL of fresh air that you breathe in, only 350 mL of fresh air actually comes in
What is alveolar ventilation?
-the amount of fresh air only that is getting to the alveoli
How do we measure lung volume??
-we can measure the volume of air that you bring in in one breath
-one breath in is a tidal volume and one breath out is a tidal volume
-tidal volume is analogous to stroke volume
How are tidal volume and stroke volume analogous?
-stroke volume is the amount of blood ejected per beat
-tidal volume is the amount of air per breath
What is minute ventilation?
-total amount of air exchanged between the atmosphere and lungs in one minute
-much more accurate
-analogous to cardiac output
How do we measure minute ventilation?
-tidal volume x breaths per minute
What is tidal volume?
volume of air entering or leaving lungs during single breath
-quiet restful breathing
-considered the smallest breathing you have
What is inspiratory reserve volume?
: extra volume of air that can be maximally inspired beyond tidal volume
-extra amount of air you can breathe in if needed
What is inspiratory capacity?
tidal volume + inspiratory reserve volume
-the maximum amount of air you can breathe in following an exhale
What is expiratory reserve volume?
extra volume of air that can be maximally expired beyond tidal volume
What is residual volume?
: volume of air remaining in lungs following maximum expiration
Can you ever get ride of the residual volume?
What is vital capacity?
the volume of air that the patient can exhale after a maximal inhalation.
. It is equal to the sum of inspiratory reserve volume, tidal volume, and expiratory reserve volume.
What is functional residual capacity?
-the amount of air left in the lungs after a tidal breath out
What is total lung capacity?
vital capacity + residual volume
What happens when you hyperventilate?
-low minute ventilation
What happens when you hyperventilate?
-high minute ventilation
How does local control of ventilation work?
high Co2 and low O2 causes pulmonary arteriole constriction which increases resistance and decreases blood flow and diverts it to a better ventilated alveolus
-this matches ventilation perfusion ratio which allows us to get best gas exchange
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Lab 2 Quiz
Chapter 5: Temperature, Volume, and Pressure
Lecture 12/14/19 [Final Exam]
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Lecture 11/14/19 [Exam 3]
Lecture 11/19/19 [Exam 3]
Lecture 8/27/19 [Digestive System]
Lecture 11/21/19 [Exam 3]