10/15/19 [Exam 2]
Terms in this set (47)
What are starling forces?
What is osmotic pressure determined by?
-the solute concentration within a compartment
What exerts osmotic pressure?
-interstitial fluid onto the capillary
-because of the proteins
What is hydrostatic pressure?
-pressure of the fluid upon the surface of a compartment
What is hydrostatic pressure considered?
What is colloid osmotic pressure considered?
What hydrostatic pressure are there?
-hydrostatic pressure of the plasma and hydrostatic pressure of the interstitial fluid
How do you calculate the net pressure?
-outward pressure-inward pressure
What are outward pressures?
-forces that favor movement out of the capillaries
What are inward pressures?
-forces that favor movement into the capillary
What are the outward pressures?
-hydrostatic pressure of the capillary
-colloid osmotic pressure of the interstitial fluid
What are the inward pressures?
-hydrostatic pressure of the interstitial fluid
-colloid osmotic pressure of the capillaries
How should you think of colloid osmotic pressure?
-it wants to pull fluid towards it
When is there filtration?
-when hydrostatic pressure is greater than colloid osmotic pressure
-net pressure is positive
What happens when there is filtration?
-there is fluid movement out of capillaries
Where does net filtration happen?
When does absorption happen?
-colloid osmotic pressure is greater than hydrostatic pressure
-net pressure is negative
-fluid movement into capillaries
Where does net absorption happen?
What is edema?
What are the causes of edema?
-Inadequate drainage of lymph
-Filtration far greater than absorption
Explain edema and the disruption of balance between filtration and absorption
-Increase in hydrostatic pressure
-Decrease in plasma protein concentration
-Increase in interstitial proteins
What is ascites?
Why does ascites happen?
-too little protein in the plasma
Explain how ascites happens
-Decrease in colloid osmotic pressure
-Cardiovascular system has a hard time holding onto fluid
-Accumulates in interstitial fluid
What is involved in microcirculation?
What do met arterioles do?
-Locally controls flow through capillary beds with precapillary sphincters
What happens when precapillarry sphincters are contracted?
-blood bypassed to venues
What happens when precapillary sphincters are relaxed?
-blood passes to the capillaries
Explain what happens when precapillary sphincters are relaxed
-blood flows through all capillaries in the bed
Explain what happens when precapillary sphincters are constricted
-bypasses the capillaries and goes to the venules
What is systolic blood pressure?
-highest pressure when the heart contracts
What is diastolic blood pressure?
-pressure remaining in the arteries after the heart relaxes
How do you get blood pressure in a dental office?
-systolic over diastolic blood pressure
How do you calculate pulse pressure?
What does systolic and diastolic blood pressure have to do with?
-arterial blood pressure
What happens with blood below the heart?
-it must travel up
How does blood below the heart get back to the heart?
-valves in the veins prevent back flow of blood
-when the skeletal muscle compresses the veins, they force blood toward the heart
What happens when you breathe in?
-moves respiratory diaphragm downward
-decrease pressure in thoracic cavity
-increase pressure in abdominal cavity
-blood flows from abdominal veins into thoracic veins due to favorable pressure gradient
What are pressure reservoirs?
What is mean blood pressure called?
What is map?
-mean pressure representing blood flow to tissues
What are the clinical implications of MAP?
-tells us how much blood and therefore O2 the tissues are getting
What is MAP determined by?
-resistance of the system
-distribution of blood between arterial and venous blood vessels
What happens when you increase blood volume?
-blood pressure increases
-there is then vasodilation
-decreased cardiac output
-excretion offload in urine to decrease blood volume
-blood pressure decreases and goes back to normal
How does Ohm's law relate to the cardiovascular system
v= mean arterial pressure
R=resistance which is determined by total peripheral resistance
What is TPR?
-resistance to blood flow due to vasculature
What happens when there is an increased CO?
-there is a decreased TPR
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