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Terms in this set (13)
How can you observe the mind?
You can't directly, have to depend on observable responses to things - but there is a gap between what we study and what we observe
Birth of psychophysics?
What 2 key points?
- Just noticeable difference between stimuli
- Absolute threshold = smallest detectable stimulus
How did measuring the mind begin? (i.e. what 2 processes)
*Mental chronometry - Wundt 1880
*Memory - Ebbinghaus 1880
Explain mental chronometry?
- Reaction time (see light, push button)
- Discrimination (if blue, push button)
- Subtract to get time for discrimination
Explain Ebbinghaus measuring memory?
- Recall depends on familiarity
- List of nonsense syllables (e.g. taz, lef)
- Tested ability to recall a list and retain later
Typical categorisation of measurements?
- Nominal (numeric values indicate groups)
- Ordinal (numeric values order responses)
- Interval (numeric values with no meaningful 0)
- Ratio (numeric values with a meaningful 0)
Name a challenge of operationalisation and explain it?
- Sometimes measures of different things are given the same name (jingle)
- Sometimes measures of the same thing are given different names (Jangle)
What is reliability?
- a) Internal consistency?
- b) Inter-rater agreement?
- c) Test-retest?
Accuracy of our measurement
a) Across items
b) Across persons
c) Across time
What is validity?
concerns the degree to which out measurement tool measures what it is designed to measure
a) convergent validity?
b) discriminant validity?
a) convergent = high correlations with measures of the same construct
b) discriminant = low correlations with measures of different constructs
What is measurement error? What 2 things does it include?
Measurement error = difference between a measured value and the true value. Includes:
- Random error
- Systematic error
What are random error and systematic error types of? Explain them?
Types of measurement error:
- Random error = inevitable
- Systematic error = can be reduced with good study design and measurement selection
What is signal to noise?
How large is the thing we are trying to measure (signal), relative to all the things that make the measurement hard (noise).
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