Anatomy Midterm

If you consider your home air conditioner in terms of homeostasis, then the wall thermostat would be the ________.
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_____ is explained by chemical and physical properties and is concerned with the function of specific organs or organic systems.PhysiologyWhat is dynamic equilibrium?homeostasisWhich cavity contains the bladder, some reproductive organs, and the rectum?Pelvic or inguinal regions____ physiology concerns urine production and kidney function.RenalWhat broad term covers all chemical reactions that occur within the body cells?MetabolismWhat does gross anatomy study?Larger structures of the body that can be seen with the naked eye.Can lungs carry out excretory functions?Yes, we excrete CO2 from our lungs.The higher we go in the mountains, the less the atmospheric pressure, which causes a loss of oxygen. Comment on this statement.One of our survival needs is maintaining a normal atmospheric pressure in the body. To be okay with a major change, your body needs to acclimate slowly.Why is anatomical terminology necessary?Anatomical terms are precise words that have limited usage, which prevents confusion when describing the location of body partsThe five cavities of the head are cranial, oral, nasal, middle ear, and ________.orbitalThe ability to sense changes in the environment and respond to them is called ________.responsivenessWhat is the single most abundant chemical substance in the body?WaterWhy must a normal body temperature be maintained in order for chemical reactions to be continued at life-sustaining rates?Variables like temp and pH can highly affect the rate and the effectiveness of chemical reactions. The reactions that maintain homeostasis in the body must stay constant in order to continue maintaining homeostasis.What is the pathway between the receptor and the control center in the reflex pathway called?Afferent pathwayWhat type of homeostatic feedback reflex is the withdrawal reflex?NegativeWhy are the abdominopelvic cavity organs the most vulnerable in an automobile accident?They aren't highly protected by the skeletal system like other regions such as the heart and lungs.What is the goal of all of the negative feedback mechanisms of the body?To slow down or stop processesWhich feedback mechanism causes the variable to deviate further and further from its original value or range?PositiveWhat can happen when the usual negative feedback mechanisms are overwhelmed and destructive positive feedback mechanisms take over?Too much of something can be produced (cancer) which disrupts homeostasis and considering what the loop is affecting, the results could be fatal.Which body system would be most affected by a lower than normal atmospheric pressure?RespiratoryWhich of the following is an organic compound?CH4 (methane)A chemical reaction in which bonds are broken is usually associated with ___the release of energyThe four elements that make up about 96% of body matter are ________.Carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogenWhich of the following is not considered a factor in influencing a reaction?TimeWhich of the following is a neutralization reaction?HCL + NaOH= NaCl +H2OSalts are always ________.ionic compoundsA solution that has a pH of 2 could best be described as being ________.acidicChoose the answer that best describes HCO3-.bicarbonate ionWhich of the following is not an electrolyte?H2OWhich property of water is demonstrated when we sweat?high heat of vaporizationWhich bonds are primarily responsible for binding different parts of a molecule into a specific 3D shape?HydrogenAmino acids joining together to make a peptide is a good example of a(n) ________ reaction.SynthesisCarbohydrates and proteins are built up from their monomers by theremoval of a water molecule between each two unitsWhat is a chain of 25 amino acids called?polypeptideWhich of the following constitutes a long chain of simple sugars?polysaccharideCarbohydrates are stored in the liver and muscles in the form ofGlycogenWhat level of protein synthesis is represented by the coiling of the protein chain backbone into an alpha helix?Secondary structureWhich statement about enzymes is false?Enzymes raise the activation energy needed to start a reactionThe genetic information is coded in DNA by thesequence of nucleotidesSelect the most correct statement regarding nucleic acids.DNA is a long, double-stranded molecule made up of A,T,G, and C bases.A red blood cell placed in pure water wouldswell and burstWhich of the following describes the plasma membranethe phospholipid bilayer surrounding the cellWhich structures are fingerlike projections that greatly increase the absorbing surface of cells?MicrovilliCell junctions that promote the coordinated activity of cells by physically binding them together into a cell community include all of the following exceptperoxisomesOnce solid material is phagocytized and taken into a vacuole, which of the following statements best describes what happens?A lysosome combines with the vacuole and digests the enclosed solid material.Mitochondriacontain some of the DNA and RNA code necessary for their own functionPeroxisomesare able to detoxify substances by enzymatic actionWhich of the following is a concept of the cell theory?A cell is the basic structural and functional unit of living organismsWhat is the main component of cytosol?waterLysosomescontain acid hydrolyses that are potentially dangerous to the cellThe endomembrane system isan interactive system of organelles whose membranes are physically or functionally connectedThe functions of centrioles include ________.organizing the mitotic spindle in cell divisionExtracellular matrix is ___the most abundant extracellular materialMitosisproduces nucleus replicationEpithelial tissue ______has a basement membraneWhich statement best describes connective tissue?usually contains a large amount of matrixOrganized groups of cells (plus their intercellular substances) that have a common purpose form a(n) ________.tissueGlands, such as the thyroid, that secrete their products directly into the blood rather than through ducts are classified as ________.endocrineA multilayered epithelium with cuboidal basal cells and flat cells at its surface would be classified as ________.Stratified squamousWhich is true concerning muscle tissue?highly cellular and well vascularizedSelect the correct statement regarding epithelia.Stratified epithelia are present where protection from abrasion is importantWhich of the following statements is true of connective tissue?Collagen fibers provide high tensile strengthHow is hyaline cartilage different from elastic or fibrocartilage?Fibers are not normally visible.Which of the following is not found in the matrix of cartilage but is in bone?Blood vesselsWhich of the following does not describe nervous tissue?When activated, shortensSelect the correct statement regarding tissue repairInflammation causes capillaries to dilate and become permeableWhich of the following statements is correct regarding diffusion?The greater the concentration of gradient, the faster the rate of diffusion.If cells are placed in a hypertonic solution containing a solute to which the membrane is impermeable, what could happen?The cell will lose water and shrinkMitochondriagenerate atpThis organelle contains ribosomes, which synthesize proteins.Rough ERWhich of the following is not an organelle?MelaninThis is an organelle that modifies and packages proteins produced elsewhere to be transported around the cell.Golgi apparatusA gene can best be defined as ________.a segment of DNA that carries the instructions for one polypeptide chainDNA replicationtakes place during interphase of the cell cycleWhich of the following is NOT one of the MAIN tissue types found in the human body?MyocardialWhat feature characterizes simple columnar epithelium of the digestive tract?Dense microvilli________ epithelium appears to have two or three layers of cells, but all the cells are in contact with the basement membrane.Pseudostratified columnarThe shape of the external ear is maintained by ________.elastic cartilageThe tissue that forms the most superficial layer of the skin isStratified squamous epithelialWhat type of connective tissue prevents muscles from pulling away from bones during contraction?Dense connectiveWhat tissue has lacunae, calcium salts, and blood vessels?Osseous (bone) tissueSelect the correct statement regarding factors that affect the tissue repair process.The age of the person is a factor in the repair process.What makes up the axial skeleton?skull, vertebral column, rib cageWhat is the major function of the intervertebral discs?Absorb shockThe pelvic girdle does not include the ________.sacrumThe antebrachium is composed of which of the following two bones?radius and ulnaWhich of the following is true?There are 8 carpals, 5 metacarpals, and 14 phalangesThe female pelvis iswider, shallower, larger in the pelvic inlet and outletWhich is NOT found in the foot?PollexThe structure of bone tissue suits the function. Which of the following bone tissues is adapted to support weight and withstand tension stress?Compact boneThe bone cell responsible for producing the matrix in a developing bone is theosteoblastBones are constantly undergoing resorption for various reasons. Which of the following cells accomplishes this process?OsteoclastWhich of the following is not a stage of bone repair?Bone collar formationWhich of the following is not found in the axial skeleton?carpalsWhich of the following are correctly matched?long bone- legThis is a structure of a long bone that stores energymarrowThis is the shaft of a long bone.diaphysisWhat is the major function of the axial skeleton?provide central support for the body and protect internal organsThe function of vertebral processes isattachment site for musclesWhich of the following phrases best describes the function of the vertebral curves?To provide resilience and flexibilityThoracic vertebrae differ from the other vertebrae in that they havefacets for attachment of ribsWhich vertebra does not have a body?atlasThe two main types of joint classification arestructure and functionWhich of the following is not a function of astrocytes?Provide the defense for the CNSWhich of the following is NOT a special characteristic of a neuron?They are mitoticWhat are ciliated CNS neuroglia that play an active role in moving the cerebrospinal fluid called?Ependymal cellsThe part of a neuron that conducts impulses away from its cell body is called a(n) ________.axonSaltatory conduction is made possible by ________.myelin sheathSchwann cells are functionally similar to ________.oligodendrocytesBipolar neurons are commonly ________.found in the retina of the eyeWhich ion channel opens in response to a change in membrane potential and participates in the generation and conduction of action potentials?Voltage-gated channelAn impulse from one nerve cell is communicated to another nerve cell via the ________.synapseThe substance released at axon terminals into the synaptic cleft to propagate a nervous impulse is called aneurotransmitterIn what way does the interior surface of a cell membrane of a resting (nonconducting) neuron differ from the external environment? The interior is ________.The interior is negatively charged and contains less sodiumWhich of the following is the correct order for the stages of an action potential?Resting state, depolarization, repolarization, hyperpolarizationThe brain stem consists of the ________.midbrain, medulla, and ponsThe vital centers for the control of heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure are located in the ________.medullaWhich of the following generalizations does not describe the cerebral cortex?the hemispheres are exactly equal in functionThe central sulcus separates which lobes?frontal from parietalHypothalamusis the thermostat of the body because it regulates temperatureWhite matter (myelinated fibers) is found in all of the following locations except the ________.cerebral cortexBroca's areais considered a motor speech areaThe area of the cortex that is responsible for sensations of the full bladder and the feeling that your lungs will burst when you hold your breath too long is the ________.visceral cortexWhich of the following is not a function of the CSF?initiation of nerve impulsesWhich of the following would you not find in normal cerebrospinal fluid?Red blood cellsThe brain area that regulates activities that control the state of wakefulness or alertness of the cerebral cortex is the ________.reticular formationThe functional area of the brain that is in control of our emotions, such as fear, anger, love, hate, etc. It can be acted upon by smell, memories, taste, sight, and self-will.Limbic systemWhich of the following statements is not true?Stage 4 sleep increases in old age.List the 3 functional classifications of neurons and their function.Sensory (afferent)- gather info from internal/external and send to CNS Motor (efferent)- take signals from CNS to muscles and glands for reaction Interneurons- communicate between sensory + motorList the basic elements of a reflex arc1) receptor 2) sensory neuron 3) integration center 4) motor neuron 5) effectorWhat is the importance of the outer portion of the cerebral hemispheres being convoluted (folded)?It increases the surface area so the brain can conduct more impulsesDiscuss the 4 different types of protection for the brain.1) Meninges- outer protection membrane that secures brain in place and allows physical protection + direct contact w/ skull 2) CSF- Watery cushion that helps the brain float and releases pressure and cushions blows 3) Skull- Hard covering of brain to help protect from blows to the head 4) Blood brain barrier- Keeps toxins and wastes from blood from entering and harming the brainWhat are the two areas of the brain that lack a blood-brain barrier?Brain stem and hypothalamus