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10/17/19 [Exam 2]
Terms in this set (35)
What is arteriole resistance influenced by?
What happens when the arteriole is stretched?
-there is a myogenic autoregulation response
What does the arteriole do when it is stretched?
-it contracts in response
Explain the myogenic autoregulation
-smooth muscle contraction in response to stretch
-opens mechanically gated Ca++ channels
-more Ca++ available for crossbridge formation
What happens when you are exercising?
-you are inducing active hyperemia
What happens when aerobic activity increases?
What do CO2 and O2 act as?
What is the response to active hyperemia?
Why is vasodilation the response to active hyperemia?
-increases blood flow
-brings more O2 to tissues
-removes excess CO2
What is arteriole diameter controlled by?
tonic release of norepinephrine
What happens when there is an increased release of norepinephrine?
What happens when there is a decrease of norpinephrine?
-there is vasodilation
Where does norepinephrine bind?
-alpha 1 receptors
What is epinephrine released by?
Where does epinephrine bind on the arterioles?
Where does epinephrine bind elsewhere on the body?
-beta 2 receptors
Where are beta 2 receptors?
What happens when epinephrine binds to betaa-2 receptors?
What are the rapid responses for blood pressure control?
What are the slower responses for blood pressure control?
What can the kidneys do to regulate blood pressure?
Know the blood pressure pathway
What happens when you have an increase in blood pressure
-you want to decrease sympathetic output
-you want to increase parasympathetic output
-you want to vasodilate
-you want to decrease TPR
-you want to decrease force of contraction
-you want to decrease cardiac output
-you want to decrease heart rate
What is hemostasis?
-keeping blood in vessel
-prevent blood loss
What are the 4 steps of hemostasis?
1. reduce flow
2. temporarily stop blood loss
3. plug up hole
How do you reduce flow?
-diverts blood away
How do you temporarily stop blood loss?
-temporary blockage of a break by platelet plug
-platelets stick to exposed collagen
-platelets secrete cytokines
-cytokines reinforce vasoconstriction
-cytokines activate more platelets
How does the platelet plug form?
-integrins help platelets adhere to the damages site
-platelets secrete PAF (platelet activating factor) this causes a motive feedback loop that attracts more platelets
-thromboxane A2 is released from the phospholipids of platelets and this increases vasoconstriction
-prostacylin helps prevent platelets from binding to healthy cells
How does the body plug up the hole?
-it is the clot that seals the hole
How does blood coagulation happen?
How does the coagulation cascade work?
1. intrinsic factor
2. extrinsic factor
what does the intrinsic factor do?
-Uses proteins already in the plasma
•Exposed collagen activates first enzyme
What happens in the extrinsic factor?
-Damaged tissue expose tissue factor
•Tissue thromboplastin or factor III
what is the common pathways after the two paths merge?
-prothrombin converts fibrinogen into fibrin
-fibrin fibers weave through platelet plug and trap RBCs
How do you dissolve a clot?
Tpa plasminogen anda thrombin release plasmin
-plasmin beaks down the fibrin polymers into fibrin fragments in a process called fibrinolysis
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