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APUSH Chapter 18
Terms in this set (85)
Compromise of 1877 provisions
Hayes promised to show concern for Southern interests and end Reconstruction in exchange for the Democrats accepting the fraudulent election results. He took Union troops out of the South.
1883 law that created a Civil Service Commission and stated that federal employees could not be required to contribute to campaign funds nor be fired for political reasons
Railroad connecting the west and east coasts of the continental US
Credit Mobilier Scandal
This scandal occurred in the 1870s when a railroad construction company's stockholders used funds that were supposed to be used to build the Union Pacific Railroad for railroad construction for their own personal use. To avoid being convicted, stockholders even used stock to bribe congressional members and the vice president.
During the Grant administration, a group of officials were importing whiskey and using their offices to avoid paying the taxes on it, cheating the treasury out of millions of dollars.
A famous caricaturist and editorial cartoonist in the 19th century and is considered to be the father of American political cartooning. His artwork was primarily based on political corruption. He helped people realize the corruption of some politicians
William Tweed, head of Tammany Hall, NYC's powerful democratic political machine in 1868. Between 1868 and 1869 he led the Tweed Reign, a group of corrupt politicians in defrauding the city. Example: Responsible for the construction of the NY court house; actual construction cost $3million. Project cost tax payers $13million.
Panic of 1873 (1873-1879)
A severe international economic depression triggered by overproduction of railroads, mines, factories and farm products.
Led to the
Railroad Strike of 1877
1870s - 1890s; time period looked good on the outside, despite the corrupt politics & growing gap between the rich & poor
Crime of '73
through the coinage act of 1873, the US ended the minting of silver dollars and placed the country on the gold standard. this was attacked by those who supported an inflationary monetary policy, particularly farmers and believed in the unlimited coinage of silver
Sherman Antitrust Act
First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. However, it was initially misused against labor unions
immigrants who had come to the US after the 1880s from southern and eastern europe
1860-1935. Founder of Settlement House Movement. First American Woman to earn Nobel Peace Prize in 1931 as president of Women's Intenational League for Peace and Freedom.
New York clergyman who preached the social gospel, worked to alleviate poverty, and worked to make peace between employers and labor unions.
Origin of Species
1859: Charles Darwin's book explained how various species evolve over time and only those with advantages can survive and reproduce
yellow dog contract
an agreement some companies forced workers to take that forbade them from joining a union. This was a method used to limit the power of unions, thus hampering their development.
A list of people or products viewed with suspicion or disapproval.
A company with a labor agreement under which union membership can be a condition of employment.
A labor union formed in 1886 by Samuel Gompers in order to voice the working class (only highly skilled laborers). It fought against labor forces and debated work conditions for skilled workers. Utilized Strikes.
Knights of Labor
1st effort to create National union. Open to everyone but lawyers and bankers. Vague program, no clear goals, weak leadership and organization. Failed
Gospel of Wealth
This was a book written by Carnegie that described the responsibility of the rich to be philanthropists. This softened the harshness of Social Darwinism as well as promoted the idea of philanthropy.
Developed in the 1880s, a practice by which railroads would give money back to its favored customers, rather than charging them lower prices, so that it could appear to be charging a flat rate for everyone.
Long haul, short haul
Different railroad companies charged separate rates for hauling goods a long or short distance. The Interstate Commerce Act made it illegal to charge more per mile for a short haul than a long one.
Interstate Commerce Act
Established the ICC (Interstate Commerce Commission) - monitors the business operation of carriers transporting goods and people between states - created to regulate railroad prices
Dawes Severalty Act
Bill that promised Indians tracts of land to farm in order to assimilate them into white culture. The bill was resisted, uneffective, and disastrous to Indian tribes
1862 - Provided free land in the West to anyone willing to settle there and develop it. Encouraged westward migration.
Frederick Jackson Turner
American historian who said that humanity would continue to progress as long as there was new land to move into. The frontier provided a place for homeless and solved social problems.
Grangers state legislatures in 1874 passed law fixing maximum rates for freight shipments. The railroads responded by appealing to the Supreme Court to declare these laws unconstitutional
1st black to earn Ph.D. from Harvard, encouraged blacks to resist systems of segregation and discrimination, helped create NAACP in 1910
Organized collective business efforts to provide economic opportunities for former slaves after the Civil war
founder of functionalism; studied how humans use perception to function in our environment
He wrote Progress and Poverty in 1879, which made him famous as an opponent of the evils of modern capitalism.
Political agenda adopted by the populist party in 1892 at their Omaha, Nebraska convention. Called for unlimited coinage of silver (bimetallism), government regulation of railroads and industry, graduated income tax, and a number of election reforms.
Banker who buys out Carnegie Steel and renames it to U.S. Steel. Was a philanthropist in a way; he gave all the money needed for WWI and was payed back. Was one of the "Robber barons"
Republican Speaker of the House in 1888, he gained a reputation for an iron grip over Congress and kept Democrats in line.
iron magnate who took on the role of president-maker in McKinley's election; believed that a prime function of government was to aid business; waged a campaign against silver
Little Big Horn
General Custer and his men were wiped out by a coalition of Sioux and Cheyenne Indians led by Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse
In 1890, after killing Sitting Bull, the 7th Cavalry rounded up Sioux at this place in South Dakota and 300 Natives were murdered and only a baby survived.
Half-Breeds and Stalwarts
Opposing factions that competed for control of the Republican Party by the end of Rutherford B. Haye's term.
The Big Four were the four most important leaders, and the most important ones at the Paris Peace Conference. They were Woodrow Wilson- USA, David Lloyd George- UK, George Clemenceau- France, and Vittorio Orlando- Italy.
Pullman Palace Cars
introduced in the 1860s these were billed as "gorgeous traveling hotels" by some. Others called them "wheeled torture chambers" and potential funeral pyres
reformer who worked to prohibit child labor and to improve conditions for female workers
founded the Henry Street Settlement and Visiting Nurse Service which provided nursing and social services and organized educational and cultural activities. She is considered the founder of public health nursing
United States writer and humorist best known for his novels about Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn (1835-1910)
A young California writer and adventurer who portrayed the conflict between nature and civilization in his novels.
wrote Red Badge of Courage; American novelist, short story writer, poet, journalist, raised in NY and NJ; style and technique: naturalism, realism, impressionism; themes: ideals v. realities, spiritual crisis, fears
First discovered in 1858 by Henry Comstock, some of the most plentiful and valuable silver was found here, causing many Californians to migrate here, and settle Nevada.
an attack on a village of sleeping Cheyenne Indians by a regiment of Colorado militiamen on 29 November 1864 that resulted in the death of more than 200 tribal members
Treaty of Fort Laramie
the treaty requiring the Sioux to live on a reservation along the Missouri River
Leader of Nez Perce. Fled with his tribe to Canada instead of reservations. However, US troops came and fought and brought them back down to reservations
1882 act that effectively disfranchised those who believed in or practiced polygamy and threatened them with fines and imprisonment
American blacksmith that was responsible for inventing the steel plow. This new plow was much stronger than the old iron version; therefore, it made plowing farmland in the west easier, making expansion faster.
Irish-American inventor that developed the mechanical reaper. The reaper replaced scythes as the preferred method of cutting crops for harvest, and it was much more efficient and much quicker. The invention helped the agricultural growth of America.
Law Passed awarding proceeds from the scale of public land to the states for the established of agricultural and mechanical colleges
National Reclamation Act
1902 law that gave the federal government the power to decide where and how water would be distributed through the building and management of dams and irrigation projects
Forest Management Act
1897 act which, along with the National Reclamation Act, set the federal government on the path of large-scale regulatory activities
Timber Culture Act
1873-act of Congress added to the Homestead Act stating a person who planted 40 acres of trees and maintained timber for 10 years were granted 160 acres of land
Painter and sculptor, his works portrayed the cowboy as a natural aristocrat, living in a natural world in which all the normal supporting structures of "civilization" were missing.
Act which allowed the establishment of individual tribal lands
a religious dance of native Americans looking for communication with the dead
United States general who was killed along with all his command by the Sioux at the battle of Little Bighorn (1839-1876)
a district in Chicago where the meatpacking companies, workers' housing, and slaughterhouses were located
American inventor best known for inventing the electric light bulb, acoustic recording on wax cylinders, and motion pictures.
N. W. Ayer & Sons and charged commission based on "net cost of space" Became the first ad agency like today in planning, creating, and executing complete ad campaigns in exchange for media- paid commissions or fees from advertisers. He hired first full-time copywriter
Vertical and horizontal integration
beginnings of trusts (destruction of competition); vertical- controlling every aspect of production (control quality, eliminate middlemen - Rockefeller); horizontal- consolidating with competitors to monopolize a market (highly detrimental)
A Scottish-born American industrialist and philanthropist who founded the Carnegie Steel Company in 1892. By 1901, his company dominated the American steel industry.
United States financier who gained control of the Erie Canal and who caused a financial panic in 1869 when he attempted to corner the gold market (1836-1892)
American mechanical engineer, who wanted to improve industrial efficiency. He is known as the father of scientific management, and was one of the first management consultants
Creator of the Standard Oil Company who made a fortune on it and joined with competing companies in trust agreements that in other words made an amazing monopoly.
(1882) Denied any additional Chinese laborers to enter the country while allowing students and merchants to immigrate.
1886 incident that made unions, particularly the Knights of Labor, look violent because a bomb exploded during a protest of striking workers.
Poorly built, overcrowded housing where many immigrants lived
Buying and using products because of the "statement" they make about social position
These Christian organizations were created before the Civil War and taught physical education and religious instruction together and were in most major cities in the US.
laws designed to restrict personal behavior in accord with a strict code of morality
In 1888, he wrote Looking Backward, 2000-1887, a description of a utopian society in the year 2000.
U.S. political party formed in 1892 representing mainly farmers, favoring free coinage of silver and government control of railroads and other monopolies
Unsuccessful railroad strike of 1877 to protest wage cuts and the use of federal troops against strikers; the first nationwide work stoppage in American history.
(Women's Christian Temperance Union) group organized in 1874 that worked to ban the sale of liquor in the U.S.
Populist who led Coxey's Army in a march on Washington DC in 1894 to seek government jobs for the unemployed.
1892 steelworker strike near Pittsburgh against the Carnegie Steel Company. Ten workers were killed in a riot when "scab" labor was brought in to force an end to the strike.
in Chicago, Pullman cut wages but refused to lower rents in the "company town", Eugene Debs had American Railway Union refuse to use Pullman cars, Debs thrown in jail after being sued, strike achieved nothing
Eugene V. Debs
Leader of the American Railway Union, he voted to aid workers in the Pullman strike. He was jailed for six months for disobeying a court order after the strike was over.
William Jennings Bryan lost to McKinley w/ the "silver issue" dominating the campaign; McKinley won, the Populists disappeared, the GOP became the party who represented the interests of the corporations and the wealthy, and a realignment occurred
William Jennings Bryan
United States lawyer and politician who advocated free silver and prosecuted John Scopes (1925) for teaching evolution in a Tennessee high school (1860-1925)
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