what was human life and technology like during the Paleolithic Age?
-homo sapiens sapiens emerged -humans migrated to all over the world -tools were gradually improved -speech developed, allowing for more communication -cultures developed -fire and the use of animal skins for cloth were discovered
what proto-human species developed during the Paleolithic Age?
Homo sapiens sapiens
who are the Homo sapiens sapiens?
newest human breed and the ancestors of all humans in the world today
how did early humans deal with their fear of death?
developed rituals to lessen the fear and created cave paintings to express a sense of nature's beauty and power
according to the textbook, what was Paleolithic Man's "greatest achievement?"
the sheer spread of the human species over much of earth's surface
according to recent research, when did humans likely enter the Western Hemisphere?
approx. 30,000 years ago
what was the Mesolithic Age?
the Middle Stone Age- a span of several thousand years, from around 12,000 BCE to 8,000 BCE
what new technologies and developments came about during the Mesolithic Age?
stone tools (weapons, cutting edges), animal bone tools (needles, other precise tools), log rafts and dugouts for fishing, pots and baskets for food storage, domestication of animals, and accelerated population growth which led to war
describe the population growth (using numbers) due to the advent & acceptance of agriculture
population grew from 6-8 million during early Neolithic times to 100 million only 3,000 years later
in what ways is the Neolithic Revolution truly revolutionary?
agriculture developed, allowing for permanent settlement and population growth due to a dependable food supply; houses and villages were established for the first time also called Agricultural Revolution???
how did the use of metals impact human existence?
the beginning of metalworking ended the Stone Ages and began the Bronze Age, & metal tools were much more effective than the previous stone and wood tools, aiding farmers and manufacturers alike. toolmaking also began specialization, as small groups were set aside to specifically make tools
describe the process of "slash and burn" agriculture
a system of agriculture in which people would burn off trees in an area, farm intensively for a few years until the soil was depleted, then move on to a new area
why did the first civilizations worthy of name develop near rivers?*****
The basis of civilizations was agriculture, and to maintain healthy crops and a sufficient food supply, irrigation must be established, which required a nearby river. Rivers provided food and water for people and allowed for easy transportation and trade with other civilizations
briefly describe the settlement of Catal Huyuk**
Catal Huyuk was founded around 7000 BCE. The mud brick houses were often decorated and religion was very important. It was large village that ruled over other smaller communities. By 3000 BCE, Catal Huyuk had become part of a civilizati
how did cuneiform and other forms of writing impact human existence?
a system of writing provided a method to organize more elaborate political structures because of their ability to send messages and keep records. taxing is more efficient and they can make contracts and treaties. societies with writing are also more intelligent because of their ability to record data and build on past written wisdom
why did people living in civilizations look down upon "barbarians?"
people in civilizations believes they were above the barbarians and were more superior. they wanted to believe they were more evolved
in what ways are the nomadic and barbarian cultures more "civilized" than civilizations? How were rules translated?
many uncivilized societies have more regulation than civilizations, as they depend on rules transmitted by word of mouth. Also, some societies repress anger and violence and have more respect for elders compared to civilizations
what are the "noteworthy achievements" of civilizations that we moderns take for granted?
writing, formal code of law, city planning and architecture, and instructions for trade including the use of money
where did the first civilization develop?
Mesopotamia- the valley of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in a part of the Middle East
what was the first form of writing and who developed it?
what were the massive religious structures called?
how did Sumerian religious views influence later religious beliefs and philosophies?
Sumerian religious beliefs such as the gods' creation of the earth later influenced the writing of the Old Testament and the current religions of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Sumerians also believed in an afterlife or punishment aka the original version of hell
briefly describe how Sumerian city-states were organized
a king held all power, there were defined boundaries, and the government helped regulate religion and provided a court system for justice. kings also served as military leaders, and war was important to ensure supplies of slaves taken as prisoners. people of the highest classes owned considerable land which was worked by slaves
who conquered the Sumerians?
describe the power wielded by the Pharaohs
Pharaohs held immense power and controlled all government and economy, resulting in godlike status
what was the purpose of the pyramids?
tombs for pharaohs
where was the kingdom of Kush located?
modern day Sudan, an area up the Nile, south of Egypt
why do we know so little about the Indus River Civilization?
infiltrations by Indo-Europeans and natural calamities resulted in a lack of knowledge about the ancient civilization. for example, the Harappan writing has yet to be deciphered
along what river did civilization first develop in East Asia?
what kind of social structure did the Shang civilization have?
they created a social pyramid with the kings at the top, followed by military nobility, priests, merchants, and farmers
what was Chinese writing like?
originally knotted ropes, then changed to scratches of lines on bones, then ideographic symbols
what contributions did the phoenicians make to civilization?
invented a similar alphabet with only 22 letters and improved Egyptian numbering system
what contributions did the Lydians make to civilization
what contributions did the Jews/Hebrews make to civilization?
1st monotheistic religion, believed God was more abstract and less human-like, religion was more a way of life than a set of rituals and ceremonies
why were the Mesopotamian civilizations more focused on conquest, trade, and expansion?
there were no natural barriers and they wanted to gain more land to expand wider and trade with other civilizations
why did Egypt remain more insular?
the Egyptians thought of Egypt as its own world, and there was little desire to reach outward; most important trade was within Egypt
what are some components that a society must have in order to be a civilization?
language, government (laws/rulers), hierarchy of social classes, economic system, religion
6 major cultural hearths
China (HuangHe and Yangtze rivers) Indus river valley Mesopotamia Nile river valley Senegal & Niger rivers (northwest Africa) central & south Americas
what environmental conditions were needed to develop civilizations?
freshwater sources aka rivers
what was the initial government of Mesopotamia?
priest-kings rule city-states (Sumerians)
what did city-states evolve into in Mesopotamia?
Mesopotamia- what kind of land owning dominated?
land owning aristocracy
Mesopotamia- what type of rules were developed?
formal legal codes (Hammurabi's code)
Mesopotamia- polytheistic or monotheistic religion?
POLYTHEISTIC - over 3,000 gods!
Mesopotamia- what was the goal in religion?
appease gods to control nature
Mesopotamia- what were art and literature focused on
gods and religion (Gilgamesh)
Mesopotamia- what were ziggurats?
temples for gods - "stairways to heaven"
Mesopotamia- what was common in the society?
Mesopotamia- how were slaves obtained & where were they used?
one could become a slave through war, crime, or debt slaves were used in temples, public buildings, or private homes
Mesopotamia- patriarchal or matriarchal society?
patriarchal, although women could hold most occupations
Mesopotamia- describe the economy
Mesopotamia was a crossroads for many popular trade routes, so trade was common
Mesopotamia- what were some important inventions?
wheel, sail, plow
Mesopotamia- which metal was used most commonly?
Mesopotamia- which 2 systems did they first develop?
1st system of writing (cuneiform) 1st number system (based on units of 10, 60, 360)
was ancient Egypt nearby other cultures or was it alone?
what was unique about the Nile?
it flooded regularly, so it was somewhat predictable
what did the Nile provide for the Egyptians?
rich soil easy to farm
Ancient Egypt- if they can control the Nile, ...
they can control society
Ancient Egypt- how did people control the Nile?
they used dykes and canals direct where the water went
Ancient Egypt- was the government / civilization formed before or after Mesopotamia?
Ancient Egypt- it was unified for most of history, and how many stages of rule were there?
3: Early, Middle, and Late Kingdoms
Ancient Egypt- during which stage of rule was Egypt most prosperous and growing?
Ancient Egypt- what was the theocracy
pharaohs were god-kings
Ancient Egypt- could women be pharaohs?
Ancient Egypt- monotheistic or polytheistic?
polytheistic - thousands of gods
Ancient Egypt- what types of characteristics did the gods possess? were there goddesses?
human and animal -like yes
Ancient Egypt- patriarchal or matriarchal?
neither- relatively egalitarian
what does egalitarian mean?
men and women are treated equally
Ancient Egypt- as a part of believing in afterlife, what did they believe in / do to prepare people for the afterlife?
believed in heaven & hell, practiced mummification, and built pyramids and temples as tombs for the dead