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Basic Nursing : Microbiology
Medical Asepsis & Infection Control Chapters: 41 & 42
Terms in this set (74)
A chemical that decreases the number of pathogens in an area by suppressing and destroying their growth
Practices that minimize or eliminate organisms that cause infections or disease
Generalized bacterial infection
(Always Present) microorganisms cause infection
Referring to organisms that enter outside the body & cause infection
Any procedure that enters or invades the body( by a means other than normal)
"Clean Technique" practice of reducing the number of microorganisms or preventing & reducing transmission of microorganisms from person (source) to another.
Tier 1 safety precautions designed for the care of all clients regardless of diagnosis or infections status.
Personal Protective Equipment
Purified Protein Derivative
Tuberculin Skin Test
Placed in private room with special monitored airflow requirements. Facility may have a special portable air-filtering machine for use in this situation. Door to room is kept closed & nurses caring for the client must wear mask.
Microorganisms present in a person who shows no signs or symptoms.
Precautions taken against diseases that can be transmitted through direct contact btw a susceptible hosts body surface and an infected or colonized person. Common measures include use of personal protective equipment
Precautions taken by to prevent the spread of diseases transmitted by microorganisms propelled through air from an infected person and deposited on the hosts eyes, nose, or mouth.
Described as an invasion and multiplication of pathogenic organisms in the body tissues, particularly those causing injury to the host
Occurs if the chain of infection remains intact; it is not interrupted.
Separation from others; separation of people with infectious diseases from others.
See protective isolation attempts to prevent harmful microorganisms from coming into contact with the client; also called reverse or neutropenia isolation
Protection for healthcare staff and visitors, if the client is still considered communicable.
(SRP) or (SRI)
Wash hands, Wear gloves, Wear mask, Wear Gown, Sharps Disposal
Standard Precautions care for all patients/ clients
Standard precautions apply to:
Blood, nonintact skin, mucous membranes, all body fluids, secretions and excretions, except: sweat
Maintenance of intact skin is:
Important because skin is the first and best barrier to pathogens
A careful history is obtained on admission to a healthcare facility :
All discarded materials used by both nurses and clients are considered:
If visible soil is present or after contact with fecal material or body fluids:
A thorough hand washing must be done, Hand sanitizer is not adequate.
If gloves are not intact ( ripped or punctured)
They must be immediately discarded, hands, washed, and gloves replaced.
Which PPE should be used in case of anticipation of contact with infectious matter.?
Gloves, mask maybe required, & gown
Which items should be removed first when using PPE.?
What are 2 primary types of isolation systems.?
*negative airflow pressure
*discharge of room air to environment or filtered before circulations
*private room or room with similarly infected clients or
* consult with infection control professional if above are unavailable
*private room with similar infected clients
* if no private room, use one in which there is at least 3ft between other clients and visitors
Precautions designed for clients with specific infections or diagnoses.
Transmission- Based Precautions
Catheter associated urinary tract infection
Central line associated blood stream infection
Hospital infection control practices advisory committee
Multi-drug resistance organisms
Personal Respiratory Protection
Ventilator associated enterococcus
Vancomycin resistant enterococci
The single most important measure to prevent the spread of disease
Masks protect both clients and healthcare personnel from upper _______ infections and communicable diseases.
What protective equipment should the nurse use while caring for clients with active pulmonary tuberculosis; fitted for individual to obtain a face seal; mask or disposable or with replaceable filters.
N 95 Mask
List the different forms of which the mask is available
Only screen out large particles.
Other types of special mask
PAPR-powered air purifying respirator
Nursing care helps to reduce the number and/ or virulence of pathogens
Nursing care helps to eliminate areas in which pathogens might grow and multiply.
Reservoir for growth of pathogens
Nursing care eliminates the transmission of pathogens between people.
Vehicle of transmission
Nursing care helps prevent pathogens from being allowed to enter a clients system.
Portal of entry
What are the 3 level of latex sensitivity.?
Contact dermatitis and/ or
What is terminal disinfection.?
Cleaning the client unit after the client moves to another room, is discharged, or dies.
Lowers surface tension of the skin, which holds microorganisms; facilitates removal during rinsing.
Antibacterial Soap Ex: Dial, Safeguard.
Disinfection, of surfaces, utensils; blood spills.some effectiveness against HIV.
Chlorine Ex: Bleach, Clorox
Cleansing skin and equipment.
Chlorhexidine Ex: Hibiclens
Mercury Ex: Merthiolate, Mercurochrome
Assume that every clients blood and body fluids are potentially infectious, used in all care of clients.
Acquired by clients in the healthcare facility.
Healthcare-associated infections (HAI)
Commonly used protective barriers include:
Gloves, eye protection, gowns, and mask
Clients are more susceptible to infections in healthcare facilities because:
Their resistance to disease is often lowered, and facilities house many pathogens
Accidental needle sticks or other contamination
1st wash the area thoroughly with germicidal soap and water
Some people are more likely to develop latex sensitivity than others watchful for a person with:
(Sterile Technique) Aims to destroy all organisms and is used only in certain situations.
Transmission-based precautions are:
Standard Precautions are:
Used when caring for all clients
Young children should be supervised by adults when:
Hand washing because they may not be able to understand good hand washing and barrier precautions
Greater risk of acquiring viral infections than are adults
The nurse outside the room is considered the "clean" nurse, the "contaminated" nurse in the room wears gown, gloves, and a mask.
Using double-bagging procedure
Nurse caring for a client needs to take droplet precautions when transporting to an area outside of clients room. Which precaution should the nurse take.?
Ask the client to wear a mask.
Originating in a healthcare facility; that is a
Nosocomial infection or "HAI"
Nurse is caring for a client with TB. What kind of a personal protective cover should the nurse use while in the vicinity of the client.?
High-filtration particulate respirator
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