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cell signaling quiz
Terms in this set (16)
Once a cell signaling pathway has been initiated, what would need to occur to stop the transduction of the signal ?
ligand breaks from receptor
Steroids, like estrogen and testosterone, do not need a membrane receptor. They can diffuse across the membrane. Why?
Steroid molecules are lipids and hydrophobic
What is the function of protein kinases?
to add phosphate groups to proteins
Insulin is a protein hormone that regulates blood sugar concentrations in the bloodstream. Insulin requires a membrane protein in order to initiate the signal transduction pathway. Why?
Insulin is hydrophilic and cannot diffuse across the membrane
What is a function of cAMP?
amplification of signal
What initiates a cell signaling pathway?
ligand binds to the receptor
What is an example of a second messenger?
Steroid hormones like testosterone and estrogen and ions like Na+ and Ca2+ are examples of
In a signaling transduction pathway, the signal is often amplified. Explain what amplification means in terms od a signal transduction signaling pathway.
the signal creates more molecules to create more responses
What property defines most ligands for intracellular receptors?
nuerotransmitters are ligands that are released from the axon of one nerve cell to the dendrite of an adjacent nerve cell. This helps to propagate the nervous signal. This is an example of what type of cell signaling.
Vibrio fischeri is a bacteria that is found in a pouch inside of the bobtail squid in Hawaii. When adequate numbers of V. fischerii are present, the bacteria send out signals (called autoinducers) that alert neighboring bacteria of the population density. All bacteria will glow once a certain population density is reached. What type of signaling would this represent.
a cell targets itself
cells secrete chemical regulators that move through blood stream to distant target cells
Signal released from a cell has an effect on neighboring cells.
direct contact signaling
Direct signaling can occur by transferring signaling molecules across gap junctions or plasmodesmata between neighboring cells
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