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AP Psychology - Chapter 1
Terms in this set (63)
The scientific study of behavior and mental processes. Three key concepts: scientific, behavior, and mental processes.
This collects and evaluates information using systematic observations and measurements.
Anything we do that can be directly observed and recorded - talking, sleeping, text messaging, etc.
Our private, internal experiences - thoughts, perceptions, feelings, memories - that cannot be observed directly.
The process of objectively evaluating, comparing, analyzing, and synthesizing information.
What are psychology's four main goals?
To describe, explain, predict, and change behavior and mental processes.
This is usually the first step in understanding behavior and it tells "what" occurs. It means to name and classify particular behaviors by making careful scientific observations.
This tells "why" a behavior or mental process occurred. In other words, this depends on discovering and understanding its causes.
Are we controlled by biological and genetic factors, or by the environment and learning? Both! No "either-or" positions in psychology - more interactions.
Identifying the conditions under which a future behavior or mental process is likely to occur.
Applying psychological knowledge to prevent unwanted outcomes or bring about desired goals. This is generally a positive goal in psychology.
Psychology's four goals are to answer:
What is their nature?
Why do they occur?
When will they occur?
How can we change them?
What is their nature? (Description)
Why do they occur? (Explanation)
When will they occur? (Prediction)
How can we change them? (Change)
"Looking inward" to monitor and report on the contents of consciousness.
An approach by Edward Titchener, which dealt with the structures of the mind. Elements of conscious experience combine to form the "compounds" of the mind. This was doomed to failure.
This studied how the mind functions to adapt human and nonhuman animals to their environment. A common question asked would be, "Why do we have the emotion of anger?" William James was a leading force in this movement. These people were strongly influenced by Charles Darwin.
During the late 1800s and early 1900s, this was forming in Europe. Its founder, Sigmund Freud, believed that a part of the human mind, the unconscious, contains thoughts, memories, and desires that lie outside of personal awareness, yet still exert great influence; "talk therapy."
Primary method is the analysis of case studies. Their general goal is to explore unconscious dynamics, internal motives, conflicts, and childhood experiences.
This emphasizes objective, observable environmental influences on overt behavior. John B. Watson is the father of this, and he adopted Pavlov's concept of conditioning to explain how behavior results from observable stimuli (in the environment) and observable responses (behavioral actions).
This stresses free will, self-actualization, and human nature as naturally positive and growth seeking. According to Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow, all individuals naturally try to grow, develop and move toward self-actualization; positive psychology.
The Humanistic perspective provides the foundation for a contemporary research specialty known as this, which is the scientific study of optimal human functioning.
This recalls psychology's earliest days in that it emphasizes thinking, perceiving, and information processing, It is one of the most influential modern approaches. They study how we gather, encode and store information.
Used by cognitive psychologists; it means likening the mind to a computer that sequentially takes in information, processes it, and then produces a response.
Use tools to study the structure and function of individual nerve cells, the roles of various parts of the brain, and how genetics and other biological processes contribute to our behavior and mental processes.
Derives from a focus on natural selection, adaptation, and evolution of behavior and mental processes. Its proponents argue that natural selection favors inherited traits that contribute to reproduction and survival; passed from genes to next generation.
Emphasizes social interactions and cultural determinants of behavior and mental processes. They show how factors such as ethnicity, religion, occupation, and socioeconomic class all have an enormous psychological impact.
First female president of the American Psychological Association (APA)
Margaret Floy Washburn
First woman to receive a Ph.D. in psychology in 1984; second female president of the APA.
Francis Cecil Sumner
First African American to earn a Ph.D. in psychology from Clark University in 1920.
This approach views biological processes (genetics, brain functions, neurotransmitters, evolution), psychological factors (learning, thinking, emotion, personality, motivation), and social forces (family, culture, ethnicity, social class, politics) as interrelated influences that interact with the previously described seven major perspectives. All three forces affect and are affected by one another.
Typically conducted in universities or research laboritories by researchers interested in advancing general scientific understanding - knowledge for its own sake without known real-world uses. This meets description, explanation and prediction (first 3 goals of psych).
Generally conducted outside the laboratory, meeting the fourth goal of psychology - to change existing real-world problems. This is research designed to solve practical problems.
Repeating a research study, using different procedures or participants in varied settings, to check the confidence in prior findings.
Statistical procedure for combining and analyzing data for many studies.
Systematic, interrelated set of concepts that explain a body of data.
Specific, testable prediction about how one factor, or variable, is related to another.
Precise description of how the variables in a study will be observed and measured.
Statistical statement of how likely it is that a study's result occurred merely by chance.
Two largest professional organizations of psychologists?
The Association for Psychological Science (APS) and the American Psychological Association (APA)
Participant's agreement to take part in a study after being told what to expect.
Participants should be told they are free to decline to participate or to withdraw from the research at any time.
Upon completion of the research, participants are informed of the study's design and purpose, and explanations are provided for any possible deception.
All information acquired about people during a study must stay private.
Dedicated to the study of behavior of different species.
The most powerful research method because it allows experimenters to manipulate, isolate, and control chosen variables, and thereby determine cause and effect.
Group that receives treatment in an experiment.
Group that receives no treatment in an experiment.
Independent Variable (IV)
Variable that is manipulated to determine its casual effect on the dependent variable.
Dependent Variable (DV)
Variable that is measured; it is affected by (or dependent on) the independent variable.
Nuisance variables that may affect the outcome of the study and lead to erroneous conclusions.
Occurs when researcher influences research results in the expected direction.
Only the researcher, and not the participants, know who is in either the experimental or control group.
Both the researcher and the participants are unaware (blind) of who is in the experimental or control group.
Believing one culture is typical of all cultures; also, viewing one's own ethnic group (or culture) as central and "correct" and judging others according to this standard.
Inactive substance or fake treatment used as a control technique, usually in drug research, or given by a medical practitioner to a patient.
Occurs when research participants are not representative of the larger population.
Using chance methods to assign participants to experimental or control conditions, thus minimizing the possibility of biases or preexisting differences in the groups.
Occurs when experimental conditions influence the participant's behavior or mental processes.
One of the most effective ways to prevent participant bias?
Observation and recording behavior and mental processes in the participant's natural state or habitat. The purpose of this is to gather descriptive information.
Research technique that questions a large sample of people to assess their behaviors and attitudes.
In-depth study of a single research participant.
Research method in which variables are observed or measured (without directly manipulating) to identify relationships between them. This determines what the degree of relationship is between two variables.
Scientific studies of the brain and other parts of the nervous system.
Ever since Harry was nearly beaten to death by his fellow inmates in prison, his life has been miserable. He still has vivid memories of the episode that he can't escape. Harry's symptoms sound most like?
According to the text, which state currently does NOT allow psychologists to prescribe medication?
Naturalistic observations are predominantly used to achieve the goals of...
How do we express a liking for others?
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