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Terms in this set (114)
a form of government in which every citizen makes up the government and rules directly
a form of government in which citizens elect representatives to govern on their behalf. the representatives are responsible for making laws that citizens want
**also sometimes called an indirect democracy or republic
a form of government in which a monarch has total power over a nation for their lifetime, and their power is passed down to another family member when they die. monarchs include kings, queens, sultans, and tsars
a form of government in which the ruler has absolute power taken by force. usually has a strong military and limits the power and opinions of the people
a form of government in which religion governs the nation. religious leaders such as priests help enforce rules and laws
a form of government in which 2 or more people control a nation. this can be by military force (military junta), rich/elite families (aristocracy), or religious leaders (theocratic aristocracy)
a lack of government where there are no rules and people govern themselves
a form of government in which power is supposed to be equally distributed among citizens
what type of government do we have?
philosopher who believed that all people are naturally equal (state of nature) and should give up their natural rights to a king or sovereign who would then enforce laws (social contract). he was very negative about life. also wrote "The Leviathan"
philosopher who believed that natural rights are inalienable and that power should lie in a king who should govern lightly. he believed that property was the most important natural right and that white men should have more responsibility since they have property. also wrote "Two Treatises of Government"
philosopher who believed that all men are born with fear, which leads to competition and war and then to better laws. favored 3 branches of government. also wrote "The Spirit of the Laws"
philosopher who thought all men are born good and free, but are corrupted by society. he considered everyone sovereign and wanted them to give up their rights to the whole community (we/me). he favored direct democracy where there was no separation of political power. also wrote "The Social Contract"
july 4, 1776
when was the declaration of independence signed?
preamble, beliefs, grievances, address grievances, declare independence, signatures
what are the 6 parts of the declaration of independence?
56 signers, main author was Thomas Jefferson along with John Adams and Benjamin Franklin
who was involved in the declaration of independence?
led to freedom and allowed us to form our own government
what was the result of the declaration of independence?
taxation without representation, lack of freedom and opinion
in general terms, why did we declare independence from Britain?
events of the revolutionary war
Stamp Act-tax on paper goods
Townshend Acts-tax on imported goods
Boston Massacre-killed 5 Americans
Tea Act-forced Americans to buy tea only from the East India Tea Company
Boston Tea Party-Americans dump 720 chests of tea into Boston Harbor in protest
Intolerable Acts-more control laws
Continental Congress formed
Midnight Ride of Paul Revere-warning that British were coming to take guns
Shot Heard Around the World-first shot of revolutionary war
Olive Branch Petition-final attempt to avoid war
Battle of Bunker Hill-close fight, confidence for Americans
Declaration of Independence
Battle of Saratoga-first American victory assisted by French
Battle of Yorktown-forced British to surrender, ended war
articles of confederation
first US constitution/government of America, unicameral legislative branch, gave Americans a lot of power and freedom
1st Constitution of the U.S. 1781-1788 (weaknesses-no executive, no judicial, no power to tax, no power to regulate trade)
no executive or judicial branch, no tax, no army, hard to make/amend laws
why did the articles of confederation fail?
legislative branch consisting of 2 chambers (house & senate)
legislative branch consisting of only 1 chamber
group of people who supported the constitution without the bill of rights, wanted a strong central government and big business. main supporters included Alexander Hamilton, George Washington, John Jay, and John Adams
group of people who opposed the constitution until the bill of rights was added, wanted more power in the hands of the states, mostly included farmers and smaller rural companies. main supporters included Thomas Jefferson, James Monroe, Patrick Henry, and Samuel Adams
bill of rights
first 10 amendments to the constitution that clearly state the rights of all American citizens
freedom of speech, religion, petition, assembly, and press (SR. PAP)
right to bear arms and form a militia
no soldier can stay in a house without the consent of the owner, prohibits invasion of privacy
protects Americans from unreasonable searches and seizures of persons, papers, houses, and effects
right to due process (innocent until proven guilty), double jeopardy (can't be tried twice for the same crime), self incrimination (don't have to expose yourself or answer questions), and eminent domain (government has the right to take your land if they compensate you)
right to a speedy trial by a jury in criminal cases and the right to know who is accusing you and what you are being accused of
right to a jury in civil trials worth $20 or more
no cruel or unusual punishment or excessive bail
rights not listed in the constitution are still granted to people
all powers not given to the federal government are given to the states
Morse v. Frederick
1st amendment court case where high school students displayed a poster that said "bong hits for Jesus" at an Olympic Parade to gain television attention, but the principal made them take it down. Morse believed that his right to freedom of speech was violated, but the court ruled in favor of the school (Morse) because it was a school event
Tinker v. Des Moines
1st amendment court case where John and Mary Beth wore black arm bands in school to peacefully protest America's involvement in the Vietnam War, but the school suspended them. The students believed that their freedom of speech and freedom to petition were violated, and the court ruled in favor of the students because they were exercising their right to peacefully protest
Texas v. Johnson
1st amendment court case where a man burned an American flag during Ronald Reagan's campaign in Texas. He was arrested and argued that they violated his freedom of speech and expression, and the court ruled in favor of Johnson because although his actions were unpopular, they were not illegal
Bethel v. Fraser
1st amendment court case where a student named Matthew gave a speech that was ruled inappropriate and lewd by the school, so he was suspended. He believed that they violated his freedom of speech, but the court ruled in favor of the school (Bethel) because it violated the school policy
Edward v. South Carolina
1st amendment court case where 187 African Americans were peacefully protesting segregation laws in South Carolina and were arrested. They believed it violated their freedom of speech and right to petition, and the court ruled in favor of the protesters
New York Times v. United States
1st amendment court case where the New York Times released information about the Vietnam War and the government tried to make them remove it (the government tried to censor information). The New York Times claimed that this was a violation of their right to freedom of press, and the court ruled in favor of the New York Times
Cantwell v. Connecticut
1st amendment court case where the Cantwell's who were Jehovah's Witnesses received permission to share their beliefs with 2 Catholic men, then the Catholics got mad and had them arrested. The Cantwell's believed that their freedom of religion had been violated, and court ruled in favor of the Cantwell's because they had received permission to share their beliefs
Schneck v. United States
1st amendment court case where a man distributed leaflets with false information about the draft and tried to get others to disobey it. He was arrested and believed that this violated his freedom of speech, but the court ruled in favor of the United States because he was telling false and possibly dangerous information
introduction to the constitution beginning with "We the People"
-ensure domestic tranquility
-provide for the common defense
-promote the general welfare
-secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity
7 principles of the constitution
-limited government power
-checks and balances
-separation of power
division of power between the federal government and the states
EX: they have individual powers such as the federal government's ability to declare war and the states' ability conduct elections, but they share some powers such as the ability to collect tax
limited government power
the government has restricted power through the laws of the constitution
EX: rule of laws--nobody is above the law
the unalienable rights guaranteed to all citizens
EX: bill of rights
the ability of the people to rule
people elect representatives to serve in government and make laws that express their beliefs
EX: each state gets a number of seats in the house of representatives
checks and balances
each branch of government limits the power of the other branches to prevent one from becoming too powerful
EX: the president can nominate government officials, but the senate can disapprove of them
separation of powers
division of power among the 3 branches of government
EX: legislative branch creates laws, executive branch enforces laws, judicial branch interprets laws
one state cannot sue another state
sets up procedures for electing president and vice president
abolished slavery and involuntary servitude
all people are equal under the law--granted citizenship
no person can be denied the right to vote based on race or color
gave congress the power to collect income tax
outlined the procedure for electing senators
prohibited the manufacture, sale, and consumption of alcohol
no person can be denied the right to vote based on gender
president & congress members take office on january 20th--lame duck amendment
repealed the 18th amendment of prohibition
limits president to 2 terms (10 years total)
gave residents of Washington DC the right to vote
abolished poll taxes
established line of succession for if the president dies
all citizens 18 and older can vote
limited the power of congress to raise their salaries--they can't accept a pay raise until the next term
process for turning a bill into a law
1. starts with an idea
2. bill is introduced to either chamber of Congress
3. that chamber can amend the bill, then they vote on it
4. if it passes, it is sent to the other chamber where they can also amend it and vote
5. if it passes through both chambers of Congress, it goes to the President
6. the President can either
a. sign the bill to make it a law
b. veto it so that it goes back to Congress **they can override the veto with a 2/3 vote
c. pocket the bill **if he does not take action within 10 days, it will automatically become a law
powers of congress
ability to coin money, declare war, collect taxes, raise and support armies, establish post offices, regulate commerce
speaker of the house, leader of the majority party, democrat
minority leader of the house, republican
Kansas representative from district 1, republican
Kansas representative from district 2, republican
Kansas representative from district 3, democrat
Kansas representative from district 4, republican (our representative)
vice president of the US, president of the senate, republican
"assistant" president protempore of the senate, senior most senator of the majority party (highest ranking senator), republican
majority leader of the senate, republican
minority leader of the senate, democrat
senior Kansas senator, republican
junior Kansas senator, republican
roger marshall, steve watkins, sharice davids, ron estes
who are your 4 Kansas representatives?
pat roberts, jerry moran
who are your 2 Kansas senators?
30 years old, US citizen for 9 years, live in the state you represent
what are the 3 requirements to be a member of the senate?
25 years old, US citizen for 7 years, live in the state you represent
what are the 3 requirements to be a member of the house?
serve their district, begin impeachment trial
what is the purpose of the house of representatives?
serve their state, serve as jury of impeachment trial
what is the purpose of the senate?
every 2 years by popular vote
how are members of the house elected?
every 6 years by popular vote
how are members of the senate elected?
this branch has the power to MAKE laws
this branch has the power to ENFORCE laws
this branch has the power to INTERPRET laws
what is article I of the constitution about?
what is article II of the constitution about?
what is article III of the constitution about?
natural-born US citizen, 35 years old, live in US for 14 years
what are the requirements to become president?
take an oath (usually swear on bible)
what does the president have to do before he can officially become president?
who is the president's running mate?
roles of the president
commander in chief of armed forces, chief of state, chief executive, chief administrator, chief diplomat, chief legislator, party chief, chief citizen ??
they are supposed to protect and serve the country
a group of officials including the vice president and 15 executive departments who are supposed to advise the president. departments include the department of transportation, department of defense, and department of education
house determines charges, senate serves as jury to make final decision by 2/3 majority vote
how can the president get impeached?
removal from all office positions
what is the consequence of getting impeached?
a rule issued by the president that has the same power as a law. they are supposed to be used to get things done faster in times of crisis
franklin d. roosevelt
which president has made the most executive orders?
differences between laws and executive orders
-laws must past through congress, but executive orders do not have to
-laws are permanent, but executive orders are temporary and can be put a stop after they are created by the passing of new legislation, or can be removed by the next president
-laws are made by many people, but executive orders are only made by 1 person (the president)
-laws take a long time to pass, but the process for installing an executive order is fast
a body of people representing the states of the US who formally vote for the president and vice president.
how many total electoral votes are there?
435 house, 100 senate, 3 DC
where do the electoral college votes come from?
what is the number of electoral college votes needed to win the electoral college?
how many electoral college votes does Kansas get?
balance of congressional vote and popular vote
why is the electoral college used?
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