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Fall Semester ID Set
FMS US History ID #51-#101
Terms in this set (112)
According to our Declaration of Independence: life, liberty and pursuit of happiness. We are born with these rights. They are not given by man and can only be taken away in most narrowest of circumstances.
An unselfish commitment of each citizen to the public good
the wife of John Adams. She attempted to get rights for the "Ladies" from her husband who at the time was on the committee for designing the Declaration of Independence.
Mercy Otis Warren
the head of patriot women during the revolution
published the pamphlet Common Sense in 1776 and later during the war American Crisis, in which argued that the colonists should free themselves from British rule and establish an independent government based on Enlightenment ideals
Women's Roles during Revolutionary War
Organizing fundraising drives, supplying the troops, working in the military camps, and tending to the wounded soldiers. Making homespun, home-made cloth; Spies; Some actually fought.
Battle of Saratoga
Turning point of the American Revolution. The victory convinced the French to give military support to the American Revolution.
Battle of Yorktown
Last major battle of the Revolutionary War. Cornwallis and his troops were trapped in the Chesapeake Bay by the French fleet. He was sandwiched between the French navy and the American army. He surrendered October 19, 1781.
Valley Forge, Pennsylvania is where Washington's army spent the winter of 1777-1778, Hundreds of men died from disease and malnutrition. Reflected the main weakness of the Continental Army: lack of stable supplies and munitions.
African-American patriot; leader in his community; fought at Saratoga.
"double-agent" on behalf of the United States. Pretended to be a runaway slave, he was able to infiltrate the British defenses and acquire countless important British war secrets
Marquis de Lafayette
Frenchman who successfully encouraged France to provide more support. He also fought in several battles
John Paul Jones
He was the first naval fighter for the colonists - known as the father of the U.S. Navy
1783 Treaty of Paris
Treaty between US and Great Britain that ended the American Revolution. The final agreement had six terms.
Articles of Confederation
1781 - first American constitution that established the United States as a loose confederation of states under a weak national Congress, which was not granted the power to regulate commerce or collect taxes. Successfully organized the sale of western lands through laws called the Northwest Ordinances. Articles were replaced by a more efficient Constitution in 1789.
Constitutional Convention of 1787
The meeting of state delegates in 1787 in Philadelphia called to revise the Articles of Confederation. It instead designed a new plan of government, the US Constitution.
Plan proposed at Constitutional Convention by Edmund Randolph. The Virginia Plan Called for a new national legislature consisting of two houses and a Judiciary branch. The lower house would consist of representatives based on the state population. Members of the upper house would be elected by members of the lower house. This plan caused opposition by both small states and large states.
New Jersey Plan
Opposite of the Virginia Plan, it proposed a single-chamber congress in which each state had one vote. This created a conflict with representation between bigger states, who wanted control befitting their population, and smaller states, who didn't want to be bullied by larger states.
The Connecticut Compromise (also known as the Great Compromise of 1787 or Sherman's Compromise) was an agreement between large and small states reached during the Constitutional Convention of 1787 that in part defined the legislative structure and representation that each state would have under the U.S. Constitution. It retained the bicameral legislature along with proportional representation in the lower house (House of Representatives), but required the upper house to be weighted equally between the states. Each State would have two representatives in the upper house (Senate).
A compromise made between Southern and Northern states during the Constitutional Convention of 1787 where slaves would be counted for representation purposes and for taxation purposes by US House of Representatives. Every 5 slaves were counted as 3 people. In effect, slaves were considered ⅗ a person.
Slavery and the New Nation
• Slavery was forbidden in the Northwest Territory • Congress would have the power to ban the slave trade, beginning in 1808. • Southern states wanted a fugitive slave clause. Runaway slaves could be pursued into other states and returned to their owners.
A basic principle of American government which states that government is restricted in what it may do. Each individual has rights (natural rights) that government cannot take away.
American philosophy that stresses liberty and unalienable individual rights as central values, Government chosen by the people , Decisions are made by elected representatives, Expects citizens to be virtuous and faithful in their performance of civic duties, and vilifies corruption.
Influence of the Magna Carta, the English Bill of Rights, and the Mayflower Compact
Magna Carta (1215) English agreement that guaranteed trial by jury: influenced the U.S. Bill of Rights' protection of individual rights; English Bill of Rights: (1689) English agreement that guaranteed certain rights; influenced the U.S. Bill of Rights' protection of individual rights; Mayflower Compact: (1620) First example of self-government in the colonies "for the good of the colony"
Separation of Powers and Checks and Balances
A system that separated the powers of government into three separate branches to limit power of each branch of government. Separation of powers led to the system of checks and balances so that the government would not become centered on one branch and one branch can't get more powerful than the other. The framers of the Constitution were concerned about absolute power in one group/individual.
Constitutional arrangement in which power is distributed between a central government and the states.
Government is created by and subject to the will of the people.
Opposed a strong central government, skeptical about undemocratic tendencies in the Constitution, insisted on Bill of Rights; included Thomas Jefferson and James Monroe. Patrick Henry - One of the main opponents of the Constitution, he worked against its ratification in Virginia. George Mason - He opposed the Constitution because it didn't protect individual rights. His opposition led to the inclusion of the Bill of Rights.
Collection of essays by John Jay (5 articles), Alexander Hamilton (51 essays), and James Madison (29 articles). The articles explained the importance of a strong central government. Published to convince New York to ratify the Constitution. Used today to better understand the original intent of the framers of the Constitution.
To become the law of the land, the US Constitution needed approval from 9 of 13 states. Federalist Papers played an important role. First to ratify was Delaware. Opponents were New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, Virginia. All states ratify by 1791.
Amending the Constitution
First ten amendments = Bill of Rights = personal rights. An amendment to the Constitution may be proposed if 2/3 of the members of Congress or 2/3 of state legislatures vote for it. The amendment may then be added to the Constitution by a 3/4 vote of state legislatures, or special state conventions elected for that purpose.
A republic's success depends on responsible citizenship which includes: obeying rules and laws, staying informed on public issues, voting, and serving on juries.
First President of the United States - faced challenges in creating a stable economic system, building an army, conducting foreign relations and warned the nation in his farewell address to "avoid entangling alliances" (do not become too close as friends to Britain or France)
First Secretary of the Treasury whose 4 part economic plan was to: 1. repay revolutionary war debt 2. create a national bank 3. create a tax on whiskey 4. create a protective tariff to protect American industry from foreign competition
Led by Alexander Hamilton and John Adams • Loose constructionist view • Favored strong federal (national) government • Pro-British, merchants and manufacturers • Wanted a balanced economy of agriculture, trade, finance, and manufacturing • Wanted to established a national bank • Wanted to maintain internal taxes • Wanted to use the national debt to establish credit
• Led by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison• Strict Constructionists• favored states rights• Pro-French, farmers and craftsmen• wanted voting extended to all adult males• Believed that America was obligated to help France• Opposed the establishment of a national bank • Wanted to eliminate internal taxes• Wanted to pay off the national debt
Judiciary Act of 1789
• Organized the Supreme Court, originally with five justices and a chief justice• Created several federal district and circuit courts.• Created the Attorney General's office. • This Act created the judiciary branch of the U.S. government.
Washington's Farewell Address
• Stressed maintaining commercial but not political ties to other nations.• Stressed not entering permanent alliances.• Stated that America's uniqueness depended on being independent action on foreign affairs
The second president and a Federalist. He was responsible for passing the Alien and Sedition Acts which hurt the popularity of the Federalist Party and himself. Prevented all out war with France after the XYZ Affair.
Alien and Sedition Acts
Passed by Congress and signed by President Adams in 1798. It had 4 parts:• Naturalization Act: increased the waiting period for an immigrant to become a citizen from 5 to 14 years • Alien Act: empowered the president to arrest and deport dangerous aliens• Alien Enemy Act: allowed for the arrest and deportation of citizens of countries at war with the US• Sedition Act: made it illegal to publish defamatory statements about the federal government or its officials.
In an attempt to prevent war with France, President John Adams sent three secret go-betweens (X, Y, and Z) to talk with Talleyrand, the French foreign minister. The French demanded a bribe of $250,000 in order to merely talk with Talleyrand. The American agents refused to pay and returned to U.S. This occurrence led to Naval Battles between the two countries. (Quasi War)
3rd President of the United States. He favored limited central government. Approved the Louisiana Purchase in 1803 and promoted ideals of republicanism. Sent out the Lewis and Clark Expedition to explore the LA Purchase territory.- Kept most Federalist programs because they were working. Kept the Bank of U.S.
The Embargo Act of 1807 forbid all exports of goods from the U.S. Jefferson wanted this act because:• England and France had been seizing U.S. ships and impressing men • He hoped it would weaken Britain and France by stopping trade. The Embargo Act ended up hurting our economy more than theirs. It was repealed in 1809. Considered one of the causes of the War of 1812.
In 1803 Thomas Jefferson purchased 828,000 square miles of land for $15 million from Napoleon, the leader of France. The land mass stretched from the Gulf of Mexico to the Rocky Mountains and Canada. The purchase of this land caused national pride and ensured expansion.
Madison was the father of the constitution and the father of the Federalist party, as well as the fourth President of the United States. He was President during the war of 1812 and previously served as Vice-President under Thomas Jefferson.
War of 1812
A war declared by the U.S. on Great Britain. Caused by:• Impressment of American sailors by the British• British seizure of American ships• British aid to the Native Americans attacking US citizens on the western frontier. The war was fought in Canada, the U.S. and on the sea. The British invaded and burn Washington, D.C. Technically, the war was a tie; however, the U.S. saw most of the benefits from the war. The Treaty of Ghent (December 1814) restored the "status quo".The war strengthened American nationalism and encouraged the growth of industry.
Era of Good Feelings
the period from 1817 to 1823 in which the decline of the Federalists enabled the Republicans to govern in a spirit of seemingly nonpartisan harmony.
Fifth President of the United States. Author of the Monroe Doctrine. Proclaimed that the Americas should be closed to future European colonization and free from European interference in sovereign countries' affairs. It further stated the United States' intention to stay neutral in European wars
Chief Justice John Marshall
Appointed by John Adams ( 1801) as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court- was a Virginia Federalist who was disliked by the state's rights Jeffersonians. The Federalists died out but Marshall continued to hand down Federalist decisions. He said that part of the Judiciary Act of 1789, on which Marbury tried to base his appeal was unconstitutional. Marshall greatly magnified the authority of the court in the Marbury v. Madison case by establishing judicial review.
Until 1803, controversy over who had the final say in determining the meaning of the Constitution, whether loose or strict interpretation should be used and who would decide. John Marshall of the Supreme Court, proposed "judicial review," which gave the Supreme Court the power to decide if a law is or is not constitutional.
Gibbons v Ogden
Suit over whether New York could grant a monopoly to a ferry operating on interstate waters. The ruling reasserted that congress had the sole power to regulate interstate commerce.
McCullough v Maryland
Strengthened federal authority and upheld the constitutionality of the bank of the United States by establishing that the state of Maryland did not have the power to tax the bank.
Trade Routes to the Far East
European countries sought new trade routes to distant trading partners in the Far East, including: China, India and Japan. Europeans were eager to buy Asian spices, perfumes, silks, and precious stones
God, Gold and Glory
The things that motivated the European explorers to settle and explore the New World .Gold: To acquire riches for themselves and the country they represent. God: They hoped to convert native people to Christianity. Glory: To bring power and prestige to their country (competition between monarchies).
Beginning with Christopher Columbus and later with Juan Ponce de Leon who explored
Florida, Spain left a notable influence in the New World, especially in Florida, Texas,
New Mexico, Arizona, and California. Spain was the leading European power in
the early imperial rivalry for control of North America.
French colonization of the Americas began in the 16th century, and established
a colonial empire in much of eastern North America, on a number of Caribbean
islands, and in South America. Most colonies were developed to export products such as fish, rice, sugar, and furs. The French established forts and settlements that would become cities such as Detroit, St. Louis, Baton Rouge and New Orleans.
A theory that holds that a country builds wealth and power by building its supplies of gold and silver. To achieve this goal, a country must export more than it imports. A
country must also seek colonies which could supply raw materials and serve as a
market for its exports.
1607 - Jamestown
The first permanent English colony in the new world. Established by the Virginia
Company for economic reasons - the Jamestown settlers came in search of
gold. The group was not prepared for the harsh environment. Most died from
starvation. Only 60 of the first 214 settlers survived.
1620 - the Mayflower/Pilgrims or Separatists
The second English colony established in the new world founded for religious
reasons. (Protestant). After landing at Plymouth, the Pilgrims (mostly families)
established the first permanent settlement in New England. The Pilgrims pledged themselves to self-government by signing an agreement known as the Mayflower Compact. They agreed to form their own government and to obey its laws.
1630 - Puritans
Another group of Protestants (mainly families) landed in Massachusetts Bay in 1630. The Puritans wanted to "purify" the Church and to establish a more virtuous society - a "City upon a Hill" as a symbol of goodness for all the world to see. They believed that hard work was the key to getting into Heaven.
New England Colonies
One of the distinct regions of the English colonies that included: Massachusetts,
New Hampshire, Connecticut and Rhode Island: The practice of religion,
especially Puritanism remained important in New England.
Located between New England and the Southern Colonies were the Middle Colonies: New York, New
Jersey, Delaware, and Pennsylvania. Most of the settlers came from the Netherlands, Germany, Sweden, France and Scotland. People were attracted to a greater atmosphere of religious freedom
The Southern Colonies: Virginia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia were well suited to growing cash crops. Settlers came from England, Scotland, and Ireland.
Originally called "New Amsterdam" this Dutch (Holland) settlement was
established on the southern tip of Manhattan Island. In 1664, the English took
over New Amsterdam and renamed it New York.
The colony of Pennsylvania was founded by William Penn in 1682, as a safe place for Quakers to live and practice their faith. Quakers have been a significant part of the movements for the abolition of slavery, to promote equal
rights for women, and peace. Philadelphia became the hub of a major Quaker settlement with local Quakers founding schools, hospitals, almshouses and other institutions for the education and welfare of the population.
Maryland was established by the English Lord Baltimore, who wished to create a
haven for English Catholics in the new world at a time of many European wars of
religion. Maryland was an early pioneer of religious tolerance in the English
Free Black Colonials
Slavery was legal and practiced in each of the European colonies at various
times. Not all Africans who came to America were slaves; a few came even in the
17th century as free men, sailors working on ships. In the early colonial years,
some Africans came as indentured servants who were freed after a set period of
years, as did many of the immigrants from the Britain. Such servants became
free when they completed their term of indenture
a prominent Puritan colonial leader, who founded the colony of Connecticut after severe disagreement with Puritan leaders in Massachusetts. He is known as the "Father of Connecticut" was an outstanding speaker and an advocate of universal Christian suffrage.
a famous early colonist of the Massachusetts Colony who was banished from Boston in 1637 for her religious beliefs (faith over works). She and several of her followers fled to the Rhode Island Colony.
Eliza Lucas Pinckney
Eliza Pinckney changed agriculture in colonial South Carolina where she
developed indigo as one its most important cash crops.
John Locke argued that all people have natural rights, including life, liberty, and property. He said that people automatically gained these rights when they are born and it is the government's responsibility to protect these rights. John Locke was an Enlightenment thinker, who emphasized science and reason over faith and superstition, strongly influenced the American colonies in the eighteenth century.
Montesquieu's view of governments led to him to believe that government
corruption was probable if a system of government didn't include balance of powers. He conceived the idea of separating government authority into the
three major branches: executive, legislative and judicial.
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
An agreement between the colonial communities in Connecticut that established a representative government. It was based on the rights of the individual. It is considered the very first constitution of the American colonies
Virginia House of Burgesses
The first democratically-elected legislative body in British North America. This group of representatives met from 1619 until 1776. The House of Burgesses first met in 1619 and served as a model for the U.S. Congress.
First Great Awakening
The First Great Awakening was a revival that swept Protestantism in the British colonies and changed the
fabric of religion in early America. The revival was a reaction to the logic and reasoning of the Enlightenment.
Rhode Island/Roger Williams
Roger Williams helped to found Rhode island. Williams and others were forced into exiled from the Massachusetts bay colony for beliefs about separation of church and freedom of religion. Religion was free of choice, which means all religion was accepted.
Transatlantic Slave Trade
Triangular trade, or the transatlantic slave trade, was a trade route originating in Europe that was used to supply colonies in the New World with slave labor. Once in the New World, slaves would be traded for raw materials harvested on plantations, such as sugar, cotton, tobacco, and wood.
The system used in the south that allowed for the rich of the south to have many slaves, and kept the poor the same way. A class system that did not allow for movement between classes.
French & Indian War
a war fought between the French and the English on American soil over the control of the Ohio River Valley. France was very determined to take complete control of the Ohio Valley and Western Pennsylvania. The French and Indian War established England as the number one world power and began to gradually change attitudes of the colonists toward England for the worst.
Proclamation of 1763
an English law enacted after gaining territory from the French at the end of the French and Indian War. It forbade the colonists from settling beyond the Appalachian Mountains
King George III
King George the third was the king of England in the 1770's.Though he was a good man he was not a good ruler.
Loyalists & Patriots
Loyalists: Colonials loyal to the king during the American Revolution.
Patriots: Colonials that wanted to be free of British rule.
1764: Parliament reduced the tax on imported sugar in half, to curb the smuggling of sugar and molasses in the colonies. They also took steps to enforce it more strictly. Samuel Adams organized protests against the Sugar Act. It was repealed in 1766.
1765: Parliament passed a law requiring the colonists to pay for a stamp to go on newspapers and legal and commercial documents. The colonists objected to this direct tax and in petitioned the king, formed the Stamp Act Congress, protest and boycotted English imports. In 1766 Parliament repealed the Stamp Act, a major victory for colonists.
forced colonists to pay taxes to house and feed British soldiers. Stirred up even more resentment for the British. The Legislature of New York was suspended in 1767 for failing to comply with the Quartering Act.
The Townshend Acts (1767 and 1768) All imports of glass, lead, paint, and tea were to be taxed, new customs officials were to be sent to the colonies to collect, and courts of admiralty were created to prosecute violators and smugglers. They were met with widespread protest in the colonies, especially among merchants in Boston who questioned the British Parliament's right to tax the colonies.
Boston Massacre/ Crispus Attucks
In 1770, a protest against British rule and taxes in Boston, MA leads to a mob in the street. The mob hurled snowballs and rocks at the British troops stationed there. The British soldiers fired their guns, killing 5 civilians - including Crispus Attucks, a free black man. Later, John Adams successfully defended the British troops in court. The events shows the rising tensions in the area.
Boston Tea Party
After the Stamp Act, Parliament passed the Tea Act which lowered the price of tea, but said that colonists had to purchase tea from Britain. This upset local merchants who were trying to sell tea. Led by the Sons of Liberty on December 16, 1773, colonists dressed like Native Americans dumped 342 cases of British tea into Boston Harbor.
To punish Boston for the Boston Tea Party, Parliament passed laws, known as the Intolerable Acts, which restricted colonists' rights. The laws made restrictions on town meetings, and stated that enforcing officials who killed colonists in the line of duty would be sent to Britain for trial. Boston Harbor was closed to trade until the owners of the tea were compensated. Only food and firewood were permitted into the port.
First Continental Congress
The First Continental Congress was a meeting of delegates from 12 of the 13 colonies. It met from September 5 to October 26, 1774 at Carpenter's Hall in Philadelphia after the British Navy instituted a blockade of Boston Harbor and Parliament passed the Intolerable Acts. They agreed to impose an economic boycott on British trade, and they drew up a petition to the King pleading for redress of their grievances and repeal of the Intolerable Acts.
Statesman, writer; scientist. He was stationed in France which helped America's alliance with France in the Revolution. Persuaded the British to repeal the Stamp Act which eased tensions and delayed the Revolution
Chief drafter of the Declaration of Independence.
Served as a delegate from Massachusetts to the 1st & 2nd Continental Congress between 1774 and 1777. Defended the British soldiers involved in the Boston Massacre (he believed they should receive a fair trial). Helped draft the Declaration of Independence.
A Founding Father who helped the movement to Independence in Virginia during the 1770s. He led oppositions to many of the oppressive Acts. Known for "Give me Liberty or give me Death!"
an American patriot who organized the Sons of Liberty and was also responsible for coordinating the Boston Tea Party. He organized opposition to the British crown to create a unified front to defend against British tyranny.
Virginian who was Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army and President of the Constitutional Convention. Later became the first President. Founding Father.
Battles of Lexington and Concord
These battles started the Revolutionary War between the American colonists and the British. British governor Thomas Gage sent troops to Concord to stop the colonists who were storing weapons. The next day, on April 19, 1775, the first shots were fired in Lexington, starting the war. The battles resulted in a British retreat to Boston.
2nd Continental Congress
Representatives from each of the colonies met in Philadelphia to start an official government and to build an army and a navy. They chose George Washington as Commander-in-Chief. They issued the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776.
Parliament and Virtual Representation
An idea stating that every member of Parliament represented every British citizen, even the colonists. Colonials wanted direct representation in the British parliament.
England did not strictly enforce Parliamentary laws, which allowed the colonies to flourish as almost independent states for many years.
refusing to obey laws a citizen believes to be unjust - WITHOUT VIOLENCE. Example: Boston Tea Party
Declaration of Independence
A formal document where the Continental Congress detailed the reasons for breaking political bonds with Great Britain. It was drafted by Thomas Jefferson and was greatly influenced by John Locke. In the declaration, Jefferson details the natural rights of all humans (life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness), the ways in which King George violated those rights (grievances), and a formal proclamation of America's independence.
John Quincy Adams
6th President of the U.S. (Democratic-Republican). Son of the 2nd president (John Adams). Won the presidency in 1824 election. Supported the "American System": improve infrastructure; protective tariff; support for a national bank and currency; reduce the national debt
7th President of the U.S. (1829-1837). War of 1812 hero - Battle of New Orleans. Opposed the National Bank. Opposed individual states nullifying federal laws. Supported the "common man". Increased presidential powers
A political scandal that arose as a result of the 1824 election. Speaker of the House, Henry Clay, met with John Quincy. Adams before the House election to name the president. Adams was elected president against the popular vote and Clay was named Secretary of State.
Tariff of 1828
A protective tariff passed by the Congress on May 19, 1828, designed to protect industry in the northern United States. Created during the presidency of John Quincy Adams and enacted during the presidency of Andrew Jackson, it was labeled the "Tariff of Abominations" by Southerners detractors because of the effects it had on the Southern economy. It set a 38% tax on some imported goods and a 45% tax on certain imported raw materials.
(1832-1833) A showdown between President Andrew Jackson and the South Carolina legislature. The SC legislature declared the 1832 tariff null and void in their state and threatened secession if the federal government tried to collect duties. It was resolved by a compromise negotiated by Henry Clay in 1833 where the tariff rates were lowered.
Under Andrew Jackson, the Democrats sought to "protect the little guy"" and his interests from bankers and the wealthy, who were frequently portrayed as using their wealth and power to crush small farmers and tradesmen. They wanted to get rid of protective tariffs and the National Bank. Democrats were also staunch supporters of states' rights, which was well liked by their Southern base, who were constantly worried about threats to slavery posed by Northern abolitionists.
The Whigs emerged out of opposition for the Democratic party and President Jackson. They favored commerce and manufacture over agriculture (protective tariffs) , believed in a more centralized system of government, the National Bank and Henry Clay's "American System". Whigs tended to represent the political and economic interests of the social elite.
Worcester v Georgia
In 1830 a Georgia law required whites to get licenses to authorize living among Native Americans and to take an oath of allegiance to the state. Two New England missionaries refused and were sentenced to four years of hard labor. Their case reached the Supreme Court as Worcester v. Georgia (1832), and the Court held that the Cherokee Nation was "a distinct political community" within which Georgia law had no jurisdiction. The Georgia law was therefore unconstitutional.
Rights owned by the states rather than the federal government. States' rights were secured in the 10th Amendment; supported by the old Anti-Federalists and heavily favored by the Democrats.
Practice of rewarding supporters with government jobs.
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