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Test 4-7, obe, final answers
Terms in this set (221)
Developmental theories can be divided up into those that show gradual, continuous changes or...
Periods of stability followed by brief periods of rapidd change
Newborns have lots of "tools" that help them in their development. One of these is not present in the infant. Which one?
Nervous system development proceeds according to the cephalocaudal and proximal distal principle. Which of these examples is a direct result of the action of these principles?
Babies cannot be toilet trained until about 2 years of age, babies attain intentional control of arms and legs at about 6-8 months old, babies cannot control the fine movements of their hands until they are about a year old. (All of these are true)
When it comes to thinking, how is a newborn different than a two-year old?
Newborns think only in non-verbal ways.
Which psychologist's theory could be summed up as "development has to occur before certain learning can occur."
There comes a time when children realize that other people have thoughts that differ from their own. This is known as...
Theory of mind
You saw the example of the chid not being upset when her graham cracker was broke in two. In fact, she was happy because it made the situation "more fair"/ which cognitive characteristic was she missing?
The personal fable and imaginary audience begin to fade during which stage transition?
Which psychologist's work could be summed up as "Learning causes the brain to develop."?
Among other problems, children with ASD seem to have major deficiencies in:
Being able to understand and express verbal and non-verbal communication
Karen Wynn's research with babies and math seems to indicate...
Even young babies have a basic sense of numbers
What is the fundamental lesson that comes from the work of Harry Harlow?
We need secure attachment as a foundation for healthy development.
Which of the following is a difference between sexes that is a real, substantial difference?
Physical strength, frequency of depression among adolescents, verbal skills in middle school. (All of these are true).
Why are kids younger than 16 convicted of heinous murders ineligible for death penalty consideration?
Their brains are changing in a way that limits good decision-making.
Lawrence Kohlberg's studied:
The way people understand and explain their actions in moral terms.
Which of Piaget's stages is characterized by preverbal thinking?
Which of Piaget's stages is characterized by the development of object permanence?
Which of Piaget's stages is characterized by development of conservation?
Which of Piaget's stages is characterized by language use indicating the presence of symbolic thought?
Which of Piaget's stages is characterized by magical thinking?
Which of Piaget's stages is characterized by calculus becoming a possibility for many (most)?
Which of Piaget's stages is characterized by the first real use of logic?
Jayden, age 15, is struggling with how his political views fit with those of his peers and his parents as he moves toward devolving what Erikson would call his sense of ...
Kaylee contributes to the flood relief fund because others are doing so, and she doesn't want to look selfish. Kohlberg's might explain that she is in the ...
Which of these statements about intelligence and aging is true?
Peyton is 11 years old and knows 10-7=3 and 7+3=10 but finds it difficult to solve a math problem, such as 3x-5, because she cannot understand why there is a letter in the problem, Piaget would most likely place her in the ...
Concrete operational stage
Ellie and Ella's parents set clear rules, but also have discussions with their daughters about the types of rules and what the consequences should be for breaking the rules. Their parents are evidently following the ...
Authoritative parenting style
When James hears the word "chair", he automatically sees a picture of a chair in his brain; James understands...
Involves the growth and change in thinking that helps children understand their world.
In what type of family are parents most likely to make demands without explanation?
Which of the following is a valid criticism of Piaget?
Young Jimmy sees the things around him and thinks that everyone thinks what he thinks. This is because jimmy's thinking is...
Psychologists call the genetically programmed growth of a child...
An infant who has developed object permanence ...
Which psychologist had a theory that said we encounter many different crises as we progress from infancy to old age?
A young adult has just finished high school and has entered college to study business/he feels sure that this is what he wants to do with his life. According to Erikson, what would be the next conflict he needs to resolve?
Intimacy vs isolation
If sam (a male) and Sarah (a female) are typical of males and females, which of the following is true?
Sam will do better on tests of spacial ability than sarah
Ed is angry with Josh because Josh is trying to date a girl who Ed likes. Based on typical male behavior, how is Ed most likely to act towards Josh in football practice?
He will be more physically aggressive than usual against Josh.
The owner of an auto repair shop refuses to hire a well-trained young woman to work as a mechanic. He does not believe that she can do a good job. What is this an example of?
According to the cognitive developmental theory regarding how gender difference develop...
The risk of Bipolar disorder dramatically increases if you...
Have a biological parent with the disorder
Which of the following best describes the reason for the axes in the DSM?
They allow several aspects of a person's mental functioning to be classified.
Defining abnormality as _________ assumes that what most people do is normal.
deviation from normality
A split from reality that shows itself in disorganized speech, disturbed perceptions, and/or diminished or inappropriate emotional expression is associated with which psychological disorder?
Panic disorder, phobic disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder are specific...
Most psychologists believe that people suffering from conversion disorders invent physical symptoms. What is the reason behind creating a physical disorder?
Dominic is intensely afraid of ants; he goes into a panic whenever he sees one. Dominic appears to suffer from...
In which type of disorder does the victim usually experience the first attack after a stressful event?
What is the difference between an obsession and a compulsion?
An uncontrollable pattern of thought is an obsession; the repeated performance of coping behavior is a compulsion.
Bert feels no regret after violating others' rights and is quite clever at manipulating those around him. Bert would most likely be diagnosed with...
Antisocial personality disorder
Pete is in good health, but he has become convinced that his headache is a sign he has brain cancer. Pete is most likely suffering from...
Illness anxiety disorder
What term refers to thoughts about who or what we blame for our success and failures.
A dissociative disorder occurs when a person...
Loses identity or memory
Which of the following is an example of dissociative fugue?
A woman suddenly disappears and wakes up three days later in a diner 200 miles from home
Julie a been diagnosed with bipolar disorder. She is likely experiencing alternating periods of...
Frantic action and deep depression
Which of the following are symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder?
Unexplainable and continual tension
Worried that she may hit her father, Maeve finds that her hand has suddenly gone numb. Her most likely diagnosis would be...
A conversion disorder
Which of the following is a core feature that characterizes personality disorders?
Significant interpersonal problems
John an his brother had an argument yesterday andJohn is still talking about it, except that the descriptions get more involved and dramatic with each re-telling of the story. John may have a ___________ personality.
The nation with the highest reported rates of psychological disorders is..
Kayla's uncle fought in an overseas war zone. After returning home, he finds it difficult to sleep and has a feeling of near constant anxiety. A psychiatrist would most likely offer him treatment for...
Post traumatic Stress Disorder
Which disorder was previously known as multiple personality disorder?
dissociative identity disorder
Noah often experiences a sense of smothering or choking, faintness or dizziness, nausea, and chest pains. He likely suffers from a...
What is significant of the "La Belle Indifference"?
It is a sign that a person is suffering from a psychological rather than a physiological problem.
Sue is afraid of flying in airplanes. The most likely way she will deal with her phobia is to..
Avoid getting on n airplane
A phobia is characterized by
Unwarranted fear of a particular object or situation
Genevieve thinks that she is right about everything all the time. She considers herself to be extremely important an wants everyone else to think so too. She also exhibits a shocking lack of empathy for others problems. Genevieve like has a(n) _________ personality.
Mary feels very anxious and cannot stop thinking about the cake she burned two weeks ago. She likely suffers from...
Somatic disorders are characterized by...
Physical symptoms brought about by psychological stress
Which of the following can be characterize as a compulsion
Checking repeatedly to make sure the doors are locked
Margaret behaves in a very submissive way. She expects people around her to take care of her all the time. She likely has a(n) _________ personality.
Convinced that she is fat, Lu diets excessively and spends at least one hour a day in the gym before school. Lu has gotten very thin and her parents are concerned that she may by developing..
Brain scans of people with schizophrenia show...
Abnormal activity in multiple brain areas
Which of the following is the primary purpose of the DSM-5?
Describing and grouping mental disorders
Noah is autistic. His symptoms most likely became apparent to his parents...
by age three
If someone is identified as "insane", what is being said about the individual?
The individual does not know the difference between right and wrong
What is it that a behavior that was considered abnormal 20 years ago is no longer so identified in the DSM?
Which of the following would likely not come from a psychologist viewing a problem form the "medical model"?
The behavior is caused by an evil spirit
Which of the following is the term used to describe the concept that pre-existing and co-existing factors lead to the development of abnormal behavior after periods of high stress?
Critics of the DSM-5 are concerned that...
It can tend to pathologies normal behavior
The factors below tend to put an individual at in increased risk for mental illness except...
Long-term aerobic exercise
When an individual has had symptoms of depression for more than 2 years, the diagnosis is sometimes changed to...
When considering the role of epigenetics in abnormal behavior and mental illness, doctors look at..
Environmental factors that allow or prevent gene expression
The common characteristic held by all fictitious disorders is...
They involve made-up illness
We experience a strong emotional sensation, What is the role of the sympathetic portion of the automatic nervous system?
It increases certain body functions and decreases others to prepare for fight or flight.
Lie detectors operate on a basic premise that assumes...
The emotions involved in not telling the truth show up in basic physiological processes
In our culture, men are taught to suppress their expression of emotion, but which of the following is true about their internal emotional state?
Men generally have a lower level of response than women
How can stress be good for you?
It helps maintain a healthy level of physiological functioning.
Which of the following would be most difficult to explain using Maslow's hierarchy of needs?
An athlete follows a "no pain, no gain" motto rather than stopping for rest and nourishment
What is an important difference between physiological and psychological needs?
Physiological needs must be met in order to survive, but an individual can survive even if his psychological needs aren't met.
What is the basic premise of "hassles" theory of stress?
Minor events can become major stressors when they come in combination.
Josie enjoys the attention of her grandparents and knows they care about her. According to Maslow, Josie's grandparents are meeting one of her...
Belongingness and love needs
How can traumatic life experiences such as abuse and poverty affect emotional responses?
They can establish a baseline of negative emotion that is hard to overcome.
Which of the following is an example of the "behavior feedback theory"?
People tend to respond to you in a manner similar to your response which can then change your mood
Bills car breaks down on the way to school and he sees it as a part of a larger problem in society that prevents him from being successful because of shoddy merchandise. Joe's car breaks down and Joe recognizes that he can keep it from happening again by being more attentive to maintenance schedules, Bill and Joe differ in...
Which of the following statements about stress is true?
Surgical wounds heal more slowly in stressed people
Individuals who continually find themselves in fight or flight mode...
Have higher incidences of disease
According to Expectancy Value Theory, what is required for at least some motivation to be present.
A belief that you can succeed at a valuable task
Which is a criticism of the Schachter-Singer experiment?
Emotional reactions are instantaneous
People can most readily detect the emotion of ___________ in a set of facial expressions
According to Dwecks work on mindset theory, what should be the basis of praise for children?
The amount of effort they put into their work
Julia is experiencing very positive emotions. A brain scan would indicate high level of activity in her.....
Left frontal lobe
Emotions are a mix of consciously experiences thoughts,expressive behaviors, and physiological arousal. Which theory emphasized the importance of cognition in emotion?
Schachter-Singer two-factor theory
General adaptation syndrome (fight or flight) does not include which of the following?
Emotion always involves...
Complex reactions to stimuli
Which of the following predicts that you will do your best on a boring repetitive task if you are in a state of high physiological arousal?
After an alarming event, your temperature, blood pressure, and respiration are high, and you have an outpouring of hormones.Hans Seyle would most likely guess that you are in which general adaptation syndrome phase?
You have difficulty doing geometry homework. According to the yerkes-Dodson law, under what circumstances will you do best at this task?
When your arousal state is low
Which of the following statements is true?
Positive reinforcement increases the likelihood of a behavior; negative reinforcement increases the likelihood of a behavior
When someone provides his phone number to another person, he usually pauses after the area code and again after the next three numbers. This pattern underscores the importance of which memory principle?
Long-Term potentiality (LTP) is best described as follows:
Which of the following is an example of implicit memory?
Recognizing names and pictures of your classmates many years after they have graduated
Which of the following statements concerning memory is true?
Memories are often a blend of correct and incorrect information
The basketball players could remember the main points of their coach's halftime talk, but not her exact words. This is because they stored the information in..
Research on the role of the amygdala in memory as found that...
The amygdala helps make sure we remember exact events that trigger strong emotional responses
Which of the following illustrates the serial position effect?
Alp is unable to remember the middle of a list of vocabulary words as well as he remembers the first or last words on the list
By waiting til the last minute to study for an exam, you are using a common yet unrecommended strategy called..
You are more likely to remember happy memories when you are presently happy than when you are sad due to..
Carl damaged his cerebellum in a car accident. As a result, he would have the most trouble remembering...
How to ride his therapy bike
Which of the following as an example of source amnesia?
Stephen misremembers a dream as something that really happened
Herman Ebbinghaus' forgetting curve shows that
People are more concerned about a medical procedure when told it has a 10 percent death rate than they are told it has a 90 percent survival rate. Which psychological concept explains the difference in concern?
Which of the following represents a heuristic?
Make got a new car with the license plat "MAVNUM1". She is asked by the school parking clerk what her number is but can only remember the old on "VANMOM1". Her inability to remember the new plate is most likely due to..
A phoneme, such as the "c" in cows is best described as a..
Unit of sound in a language
Alice significantly underestimated how long it would take to write her term paper because of..
Which of the following is not one of Robert Sternberg's components of creativity?
Which of the following demonstrates the representativeness heuristic?
Deciding that a new kid in school is a nerd because he looks like a nerd
Benjamin Lee Whorf's Linguistic determinism hypothesis relates to what aspect of the power of language>
How language determines thinking
According to Noam Chomsky, language acquisition came about primarily because of..
Language acquisition is driven by innate biological processes
Kris watches Tate email a photo to a friend. Later, Kris is able to send a photo to one of her friends without any assistance. What kind of learning is this?
How do social learning theorists say social learning is different from classical conditioning are operant conditioning?
The opposite of Acquisition is...
Which of these terms is most closely associated with B.F. Skinner?
Baby Suzy has learned that if she jumps up and down in her crib, her father will come and pick her up. This is an example of:
After extinction occurs, _____________ may occur, but it will not return the conditioned response to its original strength.
In classical conditioning, this becomes the conditioned stimulus
A reflexive action to an event..
A person's behavior causes an unpleasant event to stop..
Conditioned an 11month old boy to fear laboratory rats...
John B. Watson
Discovered that event followed by pleasant consequences tended to occur more often and those followed by unpleasant consequences occurred less frequently ...
Developed the major theoretical ideas that inform our understanding of operant conditioning...
The number of required responses between rewards stays the same..
Fixed ratio schedule
A mental image learned from repeated experience and exploration
Learning that is not exhibited until later, often not until a reward is present..
The amount of time that passes between rewards remains the same
Fixed interval schedule
Which of the following is the correct order of the memory process
Encoding, storage, retrieval
If, while becoming angry at a person, you remember other times when he made you angry, this is an example of...
What type of memory makes it possible for you to watch a movie without noticing the gaps between the frames of the film?
When a person subconsciously blocks memory out of a frightening experience, this kind of forgetting is called...
If you relate new info to info that you already know, you are practicing...
Which of the following describes a difference between declarative memory and procedural memory?
Declarative memory involves language; procedural memory relates to things we do
The inability of a 2 yr old to understand language is a possible explanation for ...
knowledge of language including its rules, words, and meanings...
Memory that is limited to a capacity of about 7 bits..
Short term memory
Skinner believed that language developed as a result of __________ and Chomsky believes that the ability to acquire language is_______
A young child who points to the bakery shelves and says "give cupcake" is exhibiting...
"Aha!" Shouted Tony as he suddenly realized the answer to a tricky problem he had worked on for weeks. He had just experienced...
Type 2 thinking is different from type 1 thinking in that:
Type 2 thinking is slow and deliberate, type 1 is fast
Which of the following most accurately describes the impact of a punishment?
Punishment can be effective at stopping specific behaviors quickly
Which of the following is an application of shaping?
A mother who wants her daughter to hit a baseball first praises her for holding a bat, then swinging, then hitting the ball
What is one of the principle functions of mirror neurons
To be the mechanism by which the brain accomplishes observational learning
Which of the following illustrates generalization?
A rabbit that has been conditioned to blink to a tone also blink=now when a different tone is sounded
What did Albert Bandura's Bobo doll experiments demonstrate?
Children are likely to imitate the behavior of adults
Which of the following best demonstrates the law of effect?
A dog whines at the door and is let out so later she whines again
Which of the following processes would produce the acquisition of a conditioned response?
Pair a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus several times
An organism responds to a 10-Hz one but not to a 25 Hz tone, demonstrating the concept of..
A student studies diligently to avoid the bad feelings associated with a previously low grade on a test. In this case, the studying behavior is being strengthened because of what type of reinforcement?
Mary checks her phone every 30 minutes for incoming text messages, but she finds messages only some of the time. Her behavior is being maintained by what kind of reinforcement schedule?
After being conditioned to salivate to the sound of a tone that has been paired with food, a dog stops salivating when the tone is repeatedly presented without the food. After a few weeks, the dog hears the tone again and starts salivating. Which of the following best explains the dog's renewed salivation?
An employee at a shoe store is paid $10for every pair he sells. If he doesn't sell any, he doesn't get paid. His paycheck is based on which of the following schedules of reinforcement?
The study of our human potential for growth has been a focus of which psychological perspective
Which subfield is most interested in studying the link between mental activity and brain activity?
WHich of the following individuals would most likely believe human nature is evolving and self-directed?
A hypothesis is..
An educated guess
Contemporary psychology is best defined as the scientific study of
behavior and mental processes
According to the behavior perspective, psychological science should be based in what?
Which of the following kinds of psychologists would most likely explore how we process and remember information?
Samir does not feel any obligation to help the homeless people he sees each morning on the way to the subway. He assumes it is their fault that they are homeless and that they must have done something to deserve it. Samir's assumptions represent...
The just-world phenomenon
Which term is defined as all the thoughts and feelings that answer the question "who am I?"
The early school of psychology known as functionalism was developed by...
In explaining human behavior, psychoanalysts are likely to focus on _____________, where's humanistic psychologists concentrate on ___________.
Childhood experiences and unconscious though processes; current environmental influences on potential
Behaviorists dismissed the value of...
Humanistic psychologists focused on the importance of...
healthy growth potential
Contemporary psychology is best defined as the scientific study of...
behavior and mental processes
Which of the following psychologists would most likely conduct psychotherapy?
Which of the following is the best example of applied research?
Using psychological concepts to boos worker productivity
The self-reflective observation of one's own sensations and feelings is called..
Which of the following is a positive correlation?
People who exercise regularly are more likely to be overweight
Which of the following is not an ethical principle regarding experimental research on humans?
Participants should always be informed of the hypothesis of the study before they agree to participate
What is the purpose of the myelin sheath?
speed up the transmission of information within a neuron
The peripheral nervous system...
A division of the nervous system consisting of all nerves that are not part of the brain or spinal cord.
What region of the brain plays a significant role in our sense of alertness and arousal?
Which of the following does a PET scan best allow researchers to examine?
The activity of various brain regions by monitoring glucose usage
Damage to the hippocampus should result in what?
Difficulty in creating new memories.
Brain plasticity refers to which of the following..
The ability of brain tissue to take on new functions
Which is one of the major criticisms of the evolutionary perspective in psychology ?
It analyzes after the fact using hindsight
Heritability refers to the percentage of what?
Variation in a trait across individuals that can be explained by genetics
During which task might the right hemisphere of the brain be most active?
Imagining what a dress would look like on a friend
What is the study of how the structure and function of genes interact with our environment to influence behavior called?
Molecular behavior genetics
Signal detection theory is most closely associated with which perception process?
Which of the following represents perceptual constancy>
We know that the color of a printed page has not changed as it moves from sunlight into shadow
Which of the following best represents an absolute threshold?
A cook can just barely taste the salt she has added to her soup
The experience of a smooth picture at the movies, even though the actual film is made up of thousands of different picture is due to..
As you look down the road, the lines of the road seem to come together in the distance, even though you know they do not. Which depth cue explains this phenomenon?
In spite of having two eyes, people see one image instead of two through the process of...
A girl holds the general idea that older men are honest. How would this belief affect her thinking if her wallet turns up missing after a visit to a coffee shop where she stood at the counter between an older man and someone about her age?
She would most likely think the younger man took it
Which of the following is a perception?
recognizing an object as a car
Which f the following is true about rods and cones?
Rods are sensitive to lower levels of light than cones
Do not develop in infants until they are about 7 or 8 months of age
Which of the following is a simplified definition of the fundamental attribution error?
We overestimate the influence of the situation in evaluating others
What would be the best definition of the self-serving bias?
An individual's tendency to interpret his/her behavior and actions in ways that are personally favorable
Which of the pairs below links "central route vs peripheral route"?
Appearance vs facts
What was Leon Festinger famous for in psychology?
Theory explaining cognitive dissonance
Which of the items below does not belong with the others?
1) chameleon affect
2) self-serving bias *****
3) social contagion
In Milgram's famous obedience experiment, who was really the subject of the study?
Which behavioral characteristic is considered to be part of the deindividuation phenomenon?
Loss of self-restraint
What happens in group polarization?
Individual opinions become more extreme
Implicit attitudes are...
Because of the mere exposure effect..
We like things when we find them to be familiar
A guy is scared by walking over a high, swaying footbridge and then he meets a girl as he comes off the bridge. Which of these is most likely?
He will feel more attracted to her
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