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Semester I U.S. History Review Guide
Terms in this set (230)
Which 1929 event sparked a chain reaction that led to the Great Depression?
The stock market crashed.
What happened as a result of the Hawley-Smoot Tariff?
Foreign nations increased their tariffs in response, leading to a decline in trade
How did the Federal Reserve try to limit speculation in 1929?
by limiting the money supply
What role did the Federal Reserve play in causing the Great Depression?
Its policies discouraged lending at a time when more money was needed in the economy.This answer is correct.
What happened in 1929 as a result of stock speculation?
Investors lost their expected profits and faced economic devastation.
According to John Maynard Keynes, what was the main cause of the Great Depression?
a lack of government interference in the economy
Why did many banks fail in 1929?
Depositors withdrew their money all at once.
How did the Great Depression affect American workers?
Almost one fourth of all workers were unemployed.
Why did some Americans push for Mexican American and Asian American repatriation?
Some white people wanted to eliminate minority competition for jobs.
How did the Great Depression affect European immigrants?
Thousands left the country for both voluntary and involuntary reasons.
What does it mean to say that factory workers sometimes went "from unemployed to unemployable"?
They took on a ragged appearance that kept employers from hiring them.
How did new farming methods in the 1920s impact the Great Plains?
They altered landscapes and made the land more vulnerable to drought.
The National Industrial Recovery Act
developed codes of fair competition to regulate industries.
How did U.S. demographic patterns change during the 1930s?
City populations grew as farmers left their homes on the Great Plains in search of urban work.
Which policy did Huey Long support in opposition to the New Deal?
taxing corporations and the wealthy to redistribute income
How did President Roosevelt's treatment of the Bonus Army differ from Hoover's approach?
He showed that the government cared and sympathized with the marchers.
What were Roosevelt's fireside chats?
radio speeches in which Roosevelt explained his policies and tried restore the confidence of Americans
Which New Deal program created during FDR's first one hundred days was intended to provide both immediate relief and long-term recovery from the depression?
the Public Works Administration
Why did the Bonus Army march on Washington, D.C., in 1932?
to demand the early payment of an anticipated bonus
Which democratic principle did the American Liberty League accuse President Roosevelt of abandoning?
limited federal government
What was one reason that money funneled through the Reconstruction Finance Corporation didn't get to the people who needed it?
Businesses did not use the money they borrowed to hire more workers.
Why did the Supreme Court consider the National Industrial Recovery Act to be unconstitutional?
The Court ruled that the President does not have the power to regulate interstate commerce.
What did John Maynard Keynes's theory of pump priming argue?
Deficit spending would stimulate the economy and end the depression.
"Hand in hand with this we must frankly recognize the overbalance of population in our industrial centers and, by engaging on a national scale in a redistribution, endeavor to provide a better use of the land for those best fitted for the land. The task can be helped by definite efforts to raise the values of agricultural products and with this the power to purchase the output of our cities. It can be helped by preventing realistically the tragedy of the growing loss through foreclosure of our small homes and our farms. It can be helped by insistence that the Federal, State, and local governments act forthwith on the demand that their cost be drastically reduced. There are many ways in which it can be helped, but it can never be helped merely by talking about it. We must act and act quickly."—Franklin Delano Roosevelt, first inaugural address, 1933What is President Roosevelt's message in this excerpt from his inauguration speech?
Action must be taken to help farmers and people living in rural areas.
Because Social Security relies on payroll taxes, how might the program be affected if unemployment rises?
It would become more difficult for the government to pay benefits.
Why did President Roosevelt decide not to pursue his "court packing" plan?
The existing Supreme Court began to favor his legislation.
Why is the minimum wage controversial?
Opponents argue that when the minimum wage is increased, some businesses cut jobs to keep their labor costs the same which, then, contributes to unemployment.
How did Eleanor Roosevelt contribute to women's rights?
She provided women with unprecedented access to the President.
"We are the leading democracy of the world and as such must prove to the world that democracy is possible and capable of living up to the principles upon which it was founded. The eyes of the world are upon us, and often we find they are not too friendly eyes."—Eleanor Roosevelt, November 22, 1938When Eleanor Roosevelt referred to "living up to the principles upon which it was founded," she most likely meant
achieving equal rights for all racial groups.
How did voting patterns change during the 1930s?
Many African Americans began to vote Democratic in support of Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt.
Why did President Roosevelt refuse to support a federal antilynching law?
He feared that southern Democrats would turn against him and prevent him from passing other reforms.
How did President Roosevelt help to expand the rights of African Americans?
He invited African Americans to serve as his unofficial advisors.
Which factor contributed to the rise of a welfare state in the United States?
Americans received direct benefits from the federal government during the depression.
Why did Roosevelt's presidency prompt the passage of the Twenty-second Amendment?
His four election victories increased support for restricting the presidency to two terms.
How did Superman affect the American public?
It demonstrated that ordinary people could be heroes.
How did Woody Guthrie help people to understand the damaging effects of the Dust Bowl?
He sang songs that described the hardships of Okies.
What was the main purpose of the WPA cultural projects?
to provide work for unemployed Americans
How did Dorothea Lange represent Americans during the Great Depression?
She photographed impoverished farmers to document their struggles.
Why did mass entertainment become such big business during the 1930s?
Americans sought to escape their worries through movies and radio.
Why were gangster films particularly popular during the 1930s?
They reflected the public's distrust of government.
Which New Deal program focused more on spreading culture?
the Federal Art Project
How did the use of machine guns change the nature of warfare during World War I?
It gave a tactical advantage to defensive forces.
Why did President Wilson ask Congress to declare war on Germany in 1917 despite his earlier efforts to Keep the United States out of World War I?
He was concerned about the German aggression outlined in the Zimmerman Note.
What did the Zimmerman note propose?
An alliance between Germany and Mexico
What factor caused the rapid escalation of World War I?
the elaborate system of alliances between European nations
How did trench warfare affect soldiers during World War I?
It led to high casualties and poor conditions for soldiers.
What effect did Germany's unrestricted submarine warfare against Britain have on the balance of power in World War I ?
The United States entered the conflict, siding with the Allied Powers against Germany.
Which event at the beginning of the war significantly swayed U.S. opinion against Germany?
the German invasion of Belgium
Which domestic reform did President Wilson consider to be "vital to winning the war"?
granting women's suffrage
Which was a "pull" factor for African Americans during the Great Migration?
Economic opportunities in the North
How did the demand for workers in the United States affect Mexicans?
Many Mexicans migrated to the western United States to work on farms and ranches.
Why did Herbert Hoover institute meatless Tuesdays during World War I?
to conserve food so that more could be shipped to soldiers
Why did the Espionage Act receive substantial criticism?
It compromised the freedom of the press by banning seditious texts.
Which opportunity did W.E.B Du Bois believe the war held for African Americans?
to demonstrate the loyalty and patriotism of African Americans.
Who were conscientious objectors?
people who rejected military service due to religious or moral beliefs
The Espionage Act, the Sedition Act, and the Selective Service Act all raised constitutional issues related to what part of the Constitution?
the First Amendment
Which events prompted the Red Scare?
communist revolutions in Europe
How did the quota system affect immigration to the United States?
It restricted the immigration of Eastern Europeans to the United States.
The purpose of the Volstead Act was to
enforce the Eighteenth Amendment.
The primary goal of the original Ku Klux Klan was to
Terrorize African Americans who sought to vote.
What effect did the Twenty-first Amendment have on the sale of illegal alcohol in the United States?
It made the production and distribution of alcohol legal in the U.S.
Which event triggered the start of World War I?
the assassination of Francis Ferdinand.
What did General Pershing want the American Expeditionary Forces to do during World War I?
to remain independent of other Allied forces
Why did the "reservationists" oppose Article 10 of the Treaty of Versailles?
They feared that it could lead the United States into war without the consent of Congress.
Why did Allied leaders reject many of President Wilson's ideas at the Paris Peace Conference?
The Allied leaders did not support Wilson's idea of "peace without victory" and wanted to weaken Germany.
What happened during the Battle of Argonne Forest?
German forces lost to determined U.S. forces against the odds.
How did the Allies counteract Germany's unrestricted submarine warfare?
With the convoy system
How did the nation of Iraq function after World War I?
It was attached to Britain as a mandate
How did the "irreconcilables" respond to the Treaty of Versailles?
They utterly opposed the creation of a League of Nations
How did the Fourteen Points address the policy of isolationism?
It rejected isolationism in favor of more open diplomacy
What effect did mass transportation have on cities and surrounding suburbs?
Suburbs grew as workers used mass transportation to travel to jobs in the city
How were farmers affected by the nation's economic growth?
Outside of the economic boom, they suffered from growing debt and falling farm prices
What was the purpose of time-study analysis in the automobile industry?
To minimize the amount of time it took to manufacture an automobile
Why did Henry Ford institute the "five-dollar day, forty-hour week"?
Ford thought that by giving his workers more money and time they could become his customers
What effect did installment buying have on the U.S. economy?
The economy grew as Americans purchased goods that, without installment buying, they would have had to have saved for years to afford.
What was Warren G. Harding's presidential campaign slogan?
"Back to Normalcy"
"Standard of living" is a general term that refers to how well people live. In the 1920s, the rising standard of living helped create
More leisure time, improved health, and more economic opportunities
What is a bull market?
A period of rising stock prices
What economic policy did Secretary of the Treasury Andrew Mellon favor?
Advancing business interests and lowering taxes
What was the effect of the Teapot Dome Scandal?
Many Americans felt that the government had betrayed their trust.
What was the purpose of the Dawes Plan?
To enable Germany to pay war reparations to Britain and France
Considering the importance of the U.S. economy to the world economy, what most likely happened after the stock market crash in 1929?
The world entered a severe economic depression
How did President Harding's policies compare to those of President Wilson?
Harding opposed many of Wilson's Progressive reforms and worked to roll back those policies
Why was the Kellogg-Briand Pact unsuccessful?
It was impossible to enforce
What was President Coolidge's position on social reform?
He opposed using legislation to achieve social change
How did radio affect American society during the 1920s?
It helped produce a standardized culture
How did many American women experience change during the 1920s?
They expanded their professional and intellectual lives
How did the writing of F. Scott Fitzgerald reflect modernist ideas?
It showed the disillusionment that many of his generation felt with the American Dream of wealth and success
Who were the members of the "Lost Generation"?
Disillusioned American writers that sought new forms of expression
What did the flapper symbolize?
The rejection of Victorian traditions
What kind of people did Charlie Chaplin often portray on the screen?
Poor working-class people
How did American Hollywood films influence the rest of the world during the 1920s?
They became popular in European film markets
Which widespread sentiment defined the Red Scare?
fear of a communist revolution within the United States
How did William Jennings Bryan help the prosecution during the Scopes Trial?
He defended a literal interpretation of the Bible.
According to James Weldon Johnson, how did the Harlem Renaissance change the perception of African Americans in the United States?
It promoted positive representations of African Americans
What did the "New Negro" represent for African Americans during the Harlem Renaissance?
a radical break with a past of discrimination
Which quality makes jazz music a unique musical form indigenous to the United States?
It combines different musical forms and cultural influences.
Whose writing conveyed militant ideologies and political leftism during the Harlem Renaissance?
Who was known as the "ambassador of jazz"?
How did Marcus Garvey propose to combat the problem of black exploitation around the world?
He organized a "Back to Africa" movement based on universal black nationalism.
What did the presence of white jazz musicians and composers suggest about American society?
Jazz helped to bridge the races and bring Americans together.
On what principle did Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. du Bois agree?
They both believed injustices against African Americans must be ended.
What was the major strategy used by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in their effort to achieve racial equality?
The NAACP used litigation to challenge unfair laws and expand rights for African Americans.
How did the Plessy v. Ferguson court case affect American Society?
It supported the norm of segregation in many areas of American life.
What kind of education did the Niagara Movement encourage?
The study of history, literature, and philosophy to facilitate independent thinking.
How did the relationship between the federal government and food producers change under President Roosevelt?
The Pure Food and Drug Act empowered the federal government to test and monitor the production and sale of food.
What did President Wilson refer to as the "Triple wall of privilege"?
Tariffs, banks, and trusts
What statement is not a legacy of the Progressive Era?
It eliminated unfair employment practices.
How did the United States gain control of Hawaii?
U.S. Marines assisted rebels to overthrow the Hawaiian government.
Why did President Cleveland refuse to sign a treaty to annex Hawaii?
He learned that most Hawaiians did not approve of the treaty.
How did the Social Gospel impact efforts for social reform?
It linked biblical ideas about justice and charity to action on social reform issues.
How does the initiative process increase the influence of voters on politics?
It empowers citizens to directly pass laws by popular vote.
True or False: Sanford B. Dole encouraged the American government to annex Hawaii.
Why was the United States less concerned with developing extractive economies than European Empires were?
The United States already had a significant supply of raw materials for manufacturing.
How did the Yellow Press affect American sentiment toward the crisis in Cuba?
It fueled American jingoism and anger toward Spain.
Why did Emilio Aguinaldo organize an insurrection against U.S. rule in the Philippines?
He felt betrayed by the U.S. decision to occupy his country.
How was the United States affected by the conclusion of the Spanish-American War?
The conclusion of the war brought both economic benefits and increased political influence to the United States.
True or False: Teddy Roosevelt led the Ninth Cavalry during the Spanish- American War.
When Republican William McKinley ran for reelection, why did he choose Theodore Roosevelt as his vice-presidential running mate?
McKinley hoped that Roosevelt's status as a war hero from the Spanish-American war would help his candidacy.
How did the Treaty of Paris lead to complications after the Spanish-American War?
The United States acquired the Philippines as a part of the treaty, leading to debate over America's role in the Philippines.
Why did the Anti-Imperialist League argue against the U.S. occupation of the Philippines?
It would go against the principles of American government.
How did the Spanish reaction to Jose Marti's war of independence influence American public opinion?
Many Americans opposed Spain's tactics and expressed support for Cuban independence.
How did President Roosevelt help to make the United States a world power.
He strengthened and asserted U.S. military power
Who determined the rights of Puerto Ricans during the Insular Cases after the Spanish-American War?
the U.S. Supreme Court
Why did the construction of the Panama Canal prove to be a difficult endeavor?
Workers had to combat deadly tropical diseases.
Why did the United States propose the Open Door Policy?
The United States wanted to establish free trade with China.
What factor most influenced economic growth in the United States between 1870 and 1920?
the expansion of American world trade markets
True or False: President Taft promised to employ Moral Diplomacy in Latin America.
True or False: As a result of the Flake Act, the United States established a civil government in Puerto Rico.
Why did Theodore Roosevelt receive a Nobel Peace Prize?
for negotiating a peace treaty during the Russo-Japanese War
Why did the United States support the Panamanian rebellion against Colombia?
It wanted to build a canal through Panama.
What motivated the Righteous and Harmonious Fists to begin the Boxer Rebellion?
the growing influence of outsiders in China.
What change did the Seventeenth Amendment bring to U.S. politics?
It allowed senators to be elected directly by citizens.
What was the primary focus of Francis Willard's efforts for social reform?
Under Carrie Chapman Catt's leadership, what was one method used by the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) to promote suffrage for women?
NAWSA used the referendum process to try to pass state suffrage laws.
Why did Suffragists criticize President Wilson for declaring , "the world must be made safe for democracy"?
They did not think the United States could be a true democracy until women could vote.
What was the purpose of the Eighteenth Amendment?
To outlaw the production and sale of alcohol.
Why did Susan B. Anthony choose to vote in an election?
To call attention to the fact that it was illegal for women to vote.
What did educator John Dewey likely mean when he urged that children be taught to think creatively?
That their education should go beyond memorizing basic facts.
In what way were Jane Addams and Florence Kelley alike?
They both were committed to improving the lives of children.
How did Alfred Thayer Mahan help to strengthen American power?
He urged the United States to build a modern naval fleet.
How did American missionaries affect expansionism?
They encouraged expansionism by strengthening American presence abroad.
How did the initiative process increase the influence of voters on politics?
it empowers citizens to directly pass laws by popular vote.
What common belief did all Progressives share?
They wanted to correct the injustices of urban industrial society.
A(n) ______ is a way for citizens to propose new laws
______ was the author of The Jungle
President _____ was known for his "big stick" diplomacy
Ms. ______ was a muckraker who revealed the "history of standard oil"
Mr. ______ was a politician who pushed for the idea of direct primary and putting the power back into the people's hands.
Robert La Follette
The ______ was the nickname of Roosevelt's party in the 1912 election.
Bull Moose Party
The assassination of president _____ allowed Teddy Roosevelt to become the youngest president to ever serve.
The sinking of the USS ______ propelled the United States into the Spanish American War.
The USS Maine
The ______ amendment gave women the right to vote.
The ______ amendment established a federal income tax to help redistribute the wealth in the United States.
President _____ helped negotiate the peace treaty that helped end the Russo-Japanese war.
Name two motives for Imperialism
Ideological, Religious, Exploratory, Economic, Political/Military
The United States acquired control of the Isthmus of Panama from Colombia by....
Sponsoring a revolution
As a result of the Spanish American war the United States acquired Guam, Philippines, Cuba, and ______
The cruise of the ______ showed that the United States was a naval power.
Great White Fleet
America took over the contract from ______ and finished the building of the Panama Canal
President Taft used _____ diplomacy when it came to our interaction with ____ ____ ____
Dollar, China, Nicaragua, Mexico
The ______ act outlawed monopolies and practices that restrained trade.
Sherman antitrust act, 1890
______ houses was community centers that provided social services to the urban poor.
A ______ of influence is an area in which an outside power claimed exclusive investment or trading privileges in another country.
A sphere of influence
The separate but equal doctrine was established by _______
Plessy v. Ferguson
_______ was an African American leader who told African Americans to be patient and work hard while waiting for racial progress.
Booker T. Washington
President _____ won the election of 1912
The _____ consisted of rugged westerners and upper-class easterners who relished what Roosevelt called the "Strenuous Life."
President _____ believed in and preached the square deal
The Roosevelt corollary updated the ____ _____ for an age of expansionism.
The treaty of _____ officially ended the Spanish American War.
Treaty of Paris
The Niagara movement which denounced the idea of gradual progress was led by _____.
W.E.B. Du Bois
An example of a technological innovation that increased the country's natural resource base is
the oil drill
What was one effect of the industrial revolution in the United States?
The cost of many goods made in the United States decreased
The most significant reason railroads encouraged industrial growth was
the efficient transportation of raw materials and finished goods
True or False; the country's growth was fueled, in part, by its vast supply of natural resources.
What is the most likely definition of the French term Laissez-faire?
"Allow to act"
The electric streetcar
encouraged urban workers to live outside of larger cities
Why did the South's dependence on a single cash crop after the Civil War hurt the regions economy?
There was little investment in industries other than agriculture.
True or False; the price of cotton fell dramatically following the Civil War
Which of the following is a disadvantage of corporations?
Corporations can become so large that they have too much influence over an industry
The point of a cartel was to
One major way that businesses lowered production costs was by
merging competing firms
Which of the following statements about the Interstate Commerce Commission is true?
It was the first federal entity to monitor business practices
Which of the following best represents an illegal action under the Sherman Anti- Trust Act
Creating a large business that aims to eliminate market competition
Why did business leaders, such as Andrew Carnegie, set up universities, museums, and libraries?
To give poor people a chance to become wealthy through education
Which activity did Lloyd say shows a patriotic tendency?
What is an example of a "pull" factor that brought immigrants to the United States?
Economic opportunity in the United States
What did immigrants help the United States to become?
An economic world power
What was one unintended consequence of the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
Many single-crop ranches in California struggled economically
Americanization programs were mostly focused on
Helping immigrants assimilate into American society
What was one way that "new" immigrants of the late 1800s were unlike "old" immigrants
"New" immigrants shared relatively few cultural characteristics with native-born Americans
The most likely reason that Angel Island was not welcoming to Chinese immigrants was a result of
Similar types of work in a particular place were often done by people who
moved to America from the same country
Between 1860 and 1890, a primary cause of migration from rural to urban areas was
increasing economic opportunity in cities
What was the key to preventing outbreaks of cholera in cities
clean water supplies
Why were skyscrapers important to cities?
They efficiently used small amounts of land
Which of the following innovations had the greatest impact on standards of living in urban areas?
Electric cable cars
"Go into any of the 'respectable' tenement neighborhoods... you shall come away agreeing [that]... life there does not seem worth living... [T]he airshaft... seems always so busy letting out foul stenches... that it has no time to earn its name by bringing down fresh air." - Jacob Riis, How the Other Half LivesBased on this quote and the title of his book, why do you think Riis wrote what he did?
To encourage public discussion of poverty in cities.
A higher standard of living for the middle class was increasingly identified with
the ability to purchase mass produced products
Department stores became popular in the late 1800s because
they advertised widely and carried high-quality goods at fair prices
Ragtime music was developed by
The growth of the newspaper industry was the direct result of
higher literacy rates as more young people gained access to public schools
The ideas addressed by writers such as Horatio Alger and Edith Wharton show that literature oftentimes
was a reflection of the realities of life
A ________ is the license to make, use, or sell an invention.
_____ _____ policies allowed businesses to operate with minimal government regulation.
The ______ were a private police force used to breakup the Homestead Strike at steel plant.
_____ is a negative term used to describe powerful industrialists, who abused their power.
During the late 1800's the port of entry for a majority of Chinese immigrants was ______.
Angel Island, San Francisco
In a ______, businesses agree to limit their production, and thus keep the prices high.
I once had surgery on a boat to avoid furthering panic in the American stock market.
_____ occurs when one person buys up all the phases of production.
I made millions of dollars in the Railroad business by running out the competition.
Rockefeller was one of the first businessmen to use _______ consolidation.
When a company has no competition when selling its product, it is said to have a ______.
What do you call it when workers negotiate as a group rather than as one?
I helped bring LIGHT to both homes and work with the light bulb.
Unlike other labor unions the ______ ____ ______ actively recruited women and African Americans to join.
Knights of Labor
Why did Mark Twain use the term Gilded Age to describe American life in 1873?
Rotten Core covered in Gold
Newcomers to America often faced ______, which was a tendency to prefer the established over the "new" immigrants.
Many immigrants believed that American society was a _____ _____ in which people blended together to make/create a single culture.
Many industrialists believed in ______, which preached survival of the fittest.
Workers fought for the eight hour workday during the _____ ____ in Chicago. Dozens of people were killed that day.
Rockefeller invented a business arrangement called a _____, in which one board of directors controlled several companies.
Most immigrants traveled in _____, the worst accommodations on the ship.
A positive term for wealthy industrialists was ______.
Captain of Industry
The ______ union accepted both skilled and unskilled workers.
People who lived in the cities and worked in the factories often had no choice but to live in _______.
This man made his money in the steel industry.
The ____ amendment abolished slavery.
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