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Miller and Levine Biology Chapter 18: Evolution of Populations
Terms in this set (32)
Consists of all genes, including all the different alleles for each gene, that are present in a population.
The number of times an allele occurs in a gene pool, compared to the total number of alleles in that pool for the same gene.
A trait controlled by only one gene.
Many traits are controlled by two or more genes; each gene usually has two or more alleles.
When individuals at one end of the curve have higher fitness than individuals in the middle or at the other end.
When individuals near the center of the curve have higher fitness than individuals at either end.
When individuals at the outer ends of the curve have higher fitness than individuals near the middle of the curve.
Random change in allele frequency caused by a series of chance occurrences that cause an allele to become more or less common in a population.
A change in allele frequency following a dramatic reduction in size of a population.
Allele frequencies change as a result of the migration of a small subgroup of a population.
If a population is not evolving, allele frequencies in its gene pool do not change.
Allele frequencies in a population should remain constant unless one or more factors cause those frequencies to change.
Individuals select mates based on heritable traits, such as size, strength, or coloration.
A population or group of populations whose members can interbreed and produce fertile offspring.
The formation of a new species.
When two populations no longer interbreed.
Form of reproductive isolation in which two populations develop differences in courtship rituals or other behaviors that prevent them from breeding.
When two populations are separated by geographic barriers such as rivers, mountains, or bodies of water.
When two or more species reproduce at different times.
Uses mutation rates in DNA to estimate the time that two species have been evolving independently.
A species which has died out.
group of individuals of the same species that live in the same area
A segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a specific trait
An organism's genetic makeup, or allele combinations.
An organism's physical appearance, or visible traits.
change in a DNA sequence that affects genetic information: only source of new alleles
new combination of genes produced by crossing over and independent assortment
lateral gene transfer
The transfer of genes from one species to another, common among bacteria and archaea.
Movement of alleles into or out of a population due to the migration of individuals to or from the population
p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1
The generation of extra copies of a gene in a genome over evolutionary time. A mechanism by which genomes can acquire new functions.
series of genes that controls the organs and tissues that develop in various parts of an embryo
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