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AP World Midterm Review 2019
Terms in this set (133)
a society in which men hold the power and women are largely excluded from it
the ancient religion of the Aryan peoples who entered northwestern India from Persia c. 2000-1200 BC. It was the precursor of Hinduism, and its beliefs and practices are contained in the Vedas.
One of the first monotheistic religions, particularly one with a wide following. It was central to the political and religious culture of ancient Persia.
Origins of the early Jewish religion with the state of Israel and the Israelites
architectural constructions of a greater-than-human scale, such as pyramids, temples, and tombs
A dispersion of people from their homeland; usually used to refer to the Jewish communities around the Mediterranean and Middle East
A religion with a belief in one god. It originated with Abraham and the Hebrew people. Yahweh was responsible for the world and everything within it. They preserved their early history in the Old Testament.
In Hindu belief, a person's religious and moral duties
A religion and philosophy developed in ancient India, characterized by a belief in reincarnation and a supreme being who takes many forms
a set of rigid social categories that determined not only a person's occupation and economic potential, but also his or her position in society
the teaching of Buddha that life is permeated with suffering caused by desire, that suffering ceases when desire ceases, and that enlightenment obtained through right conduct and wisdom and meditation releases one from desire and suffering and rebirth
A philosophy that adheres to the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius. It shows the way to ensure a stable government and an orderly society in the present world and stresses a moral code of conduct.
a Chinese philosophy concerned with obtaining long life and living in harmony with nature; influenced Chinese society indirectly rather than directly as Confucianism
In Confucian thought, one of the virtues to be cultivated, a love and respect for one's parents and ancestors.
Confucian philosophy about social order where everyone has a place and respect is paid to elders, parents, and the government. The relationships are, ruler to ruled, father to son, older brother to younger brother, husband to wife, friend to friend.
A monotheistic system of beliefs and practices based on the Old Testament and the teachings of Jesus as embodied in the New Testament and emphasizing the role of Jesus as savior.
Ideas that emphasized logic, empirical observation, and nature of political power and hierarchy.
a life dedicated to prayer, work, study, and the needs of society; found in both Buddhism and Christanity
The practice of identifying special individuals (shamans) who will interact with spirits for the benefit of the community.
Belief that objects, such as plants and stones, or natural events, like thunderstorms and earthquakes, have a discrete spirit and conscious life. (example: Shintoism)
An individual who helps to diffuse a universalizing religion; used in Christianity and Buddhism and later Sufis in Islam
An ancient trade route between China and the Mediterranean Sea extending some 6,440 km (4,000 mi) and linking China with the Roman Empire. Marco Polo followed the route on his journey to Cathay; best known for exchange of luxury goods, camel caravans, spread of ideas and diseases (like Black Death), use of pastoral nomads, merchants, spread of Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam
An instrument used by sailors to determine their location by observing the position of the stars and planets; invented by Greeks around 220 BCE
seasonal wind in India, the winter monsoon brings hot, dry weather and the summer monsoon brings rain; key to sailing in the Indian Ocean
an inn in some Eastern countries with a large courtyard that provides accommodation for caravans; encouraged Silk Road trade by providing safety
The 1,100-mile (1,700-kilometer) waterway linking the Yellow and the Yangzi Rivers. It was begun in the Han period and completed during the Sui Empire.
Islamic empire ruled by those believed to be the successors to the Prophet Muhammad.
the Arab prophet who founded Islam (570-632)
Majority of the Muslims; believe successor of Muhammad can be an elected caliph.
Minority of Muslims that believe only descendants of Muhammad and his son-in-law Ali should rule
mystical Muslim group that believed they could draw closer to God through prayer, fasting, & simple life; known for spreading Islam
The movement of the Bantu peoples southward throughout Africa, spreading their language and culture and iron metallurgy, from around 500 b.c. to around A.D 1000
Movement of peoples in the Pacific which populated many islands; spread knowledge of agriculture (sugar, chickens, pigs, taro)
A Muslim-ruled region in what is now Spain, established by the Berbers in the eighth century A.D.
The community of all Muslims. A major innovation against the background of seventh-century Arabia, where traditionally kinship rather than faith had determined membership in a community.
Islamic officials, scholars who shaped public policy in accordance with the Quran and the sharia
tax that non-Muslims had to pay when living within a Muslim empire
(330-1453) The eastern half of the Roman Empire, which survived after the fall of the Western Empire at the end of the 5th century C.E. Its capital was Constantinople, named after the Emperor Constantine.
the peninsula where present-day Spain and Portugal are located
A system in which defeated peoples were forced to pay a tax in the form of goods and labor. This forced transfer of food, cloth, and other goods subsidized the development of large cities. An important component of the Chinese, Aztec and Inca economies.
A political system in which nobles are granted the use of lands that legally belong to their king, in exchange for their loyalty, military service, and protection of the people who live on the land; utilized in Western Europe and Japan
The Japanese system of centralized government under a shogun, who exercised actual power while the emperor was reduced to a figurehead.
Four regional Mongol kingdoms that arose following the death of Genghis Khan. Include: China, Russia, Middle East
Khanate of the Golden Horde
the Mongol empire, that, after the fall of Kiev, ruled all of southern Russia for 200 years through tribute system
Mongol rule in Persia deferred to local Persian authorities, whom administered as long as they delivered taxes to the Mongols and maintained order
Central American empire constructed by the Mexica and expanded greatly during the fifteenth century during the reigns of Itzcoatl and Motecuzoma I. Utilized tribute system, warfare, and massive human sacrifices
Empire in Peru. conquered by Pizarro, who began an empire for the Spanish in 1535; known for their lack of written language, bureaucratic government, and use of quippu and the mita system
Inca colored chords that kept the data for taxes and general communication
Mesoamerican civilization concentrated in Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula and in Guatemala and Honduras but never unified into a single empire (city-states only). Major contributions were in mathematics, astronomy, and development of the calendar.
An imperial eunuch and Muslim, entrusted by the Ming emperor Yongle with a series of state voyages that took his gigantic ships through the Indian Ocean, from Southeast Asia to Africa.
Vasco de Gama (Portugal)
Discovered a route to India for Portugal by s a was very profitable for both the country and sailor with his cargo
Quick-maturing rice that can allow two harvests in one growing season. Originally introduced into Champa from India, it was later sent to China as a tribute gift by the Champa state - Vietnam (as part of the tributary system.)
Chinampa Field System
"floating gardens"; islands of muck heaped in lakes that permitted year-round agriculture to support population of the Aztecs on Lake Texcoco
In medieval Europe, an association of men (rarely women), such as merchants, artisans, or professors, who worked in a particular trade and created an organized institution to promote their economic and political interests.
A type of labor commonly used in feudal systems in which the laborers work the land in return for protection but they are bound to the land and are not allowed to leave or to peruse their a new occupation. This was common in early Medieval Europe as well as in Russia until the mid 19th century.
In postclassical China, a mixture of traditional Confucian and Buddhist beliefs.
Chinese practice of tightly wrapping girls' feet to keep them small, begun in the Tang dynasty; an emphasis on small size and delicacy was central to views of female beauty.
Inca system recruiting workers for particularly difficult and dangerous chores that free laborers would not accept; later manipulated by the Spanish to mine silver
(1304-1369) Morrocan Muslim scholar, the most widely traveled individual of his time. He wrote a detailed account of his visits to Islamic lands from China to Spain and the western Sudan. His writings gave a glimpse into the world of that time period.
(1254-1324) Italian explorer and author. He made numerous trips to China and returned to Europe to write of his journeys. He is responsible for much of the knowledge exchanged between Europe and China during this time period.
Black Plague/Bubonic Plague
1347-1351; caused the death of 1/3 to ½ of the population of Europe; spread by infected fleas and along trade routes.
Resulted in a labor shortage, the elimination of serfdom, and a decrease in the prestige of the Roman Catholic Church
a small, fast Spanish or Portuguese sailing ship of the 15th-17th centuries.
a large merchant ship of a kind operating in European waters in the 14th to the 17th century.
Junk Ships (Treasure Ships)
A junk is an ancient Chinese sailing vessel/ship design still in use today. Junks were developed during the Song Dynasty (960-1129) and were used as seagoing vessels as early as the 2nd century CE.
An economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought (positive balance of trade with use of their colonies)
A company made up of a group of shareholders. Each shareholder contributes some money to the company and receives some share of the company's profits and debts. Showed that individuals rather than kingdoms/governments were sponsoring voyages and exploration
trading post empire
16th Century. Built initially by the Portuguese, these were used to control the trade routes by forcing merchant vessels to call at fortified trading sites and pay duties there.
An exchange of goods, ideas and skills from the Old World (Europe, Asia and Africa) to the New World (North and South America) and vice versa. Led to spread of disease in the New World and deforestation, soil depletion but population growth in Afro-Eurasia due to access to maize and potatoes
The Great Dying
Term used to describe the devastating demographic impact of European-borne epidemic diseases on the Americas; small pox, measles
a monotheistic religion founded in Punjab in the 15th century by Guru Nanak. Seen as a syncretic blend of Hinduism and Islam as a result o the Mughal Empire; in practice it is more complicated
Syncretic African religious ideas and practices among descendants of African slaves in Haiti, blending traditional beliefs from West African with Roman Catholicism
Production system based on a large estate owned by an individual, family, or corporation and organized to produce a cash crop. Almost all plantations were established within the tropics; in recent decades, many have been divided into smaller holdings or reorganized as cooperatives
Little Ice Age
A century-long period of cool climate that began in the 1590s. Its ill effects on agriculture in northern Europe were notable.
system in Spanish America that gave settlers the right to tax local Indians or to demand their labor in exchange for protecting them and teaching them skills.
A chattel slave is an enslaved person who is owned forever and whose children and children's children are automatically enslaved. Chattel slaves are individuals treated as complete property, to be bought and sold
A People from Northeastern Asia who founded and ruled China's Qing dynasty; did not allow intermarriage and forced ethnic Chinese to wear certain clothes and hairstyles to delineate them
A worker bound by a voluntary agreement to work for a specified period of years often in return for free passage to an overseas destination. Before 1800 most were Europeans; after 1800 most indentured laborers were Asians.
A Japanese feudal lord who commanded a private army of samurai
the idea that monarchs are God's representatives on earth and are therefore answerable only to God.
A system of government in which the head of state is a hereditary position and the king or queen has almost complete power; Louis XIV and Peter the Great are typical examples
Class of warriors in feudal Japan who pledged loyalty to a noble in return for land.
beautiful mausoleum at Agra built by the Mogul emperor Shah Jahan (completed in 1649) in memory of his favorite wife; shows blend of Arabic, Muslim, and Indian architectural elements
A palace built by Louis XIV outside of Paris; it was home to Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette; showed the absolute power of the French monarchy
A system in colonial Spain of determining a person's social importance according to different racial categories.
people of mixed European and African ancestry; mestizos and these people occupied the lower political and social positions in Spanish American society
The term used by Spanish authorities to describe someone of mixed native American and European descent.
Thirty Years War
(1618-1648 CE) War within the Holy Roman Empire between German Protestants and their allies (Sweden, Denmark, France) and the emperor and his ally, Spain; ended in 1648 after great destruction with Treaty of Westphalia.
A religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches; led by former Catholic monk Martin Luther who encouraged publishing the Bible in the vernacular (spoken language) which led to increased literacy
the reaction of the Roman Catholic Church to the Reformation reaffirming the veneration of saints and the authority of the Pope (to which Protestants objected); led to Inquisitions, creation of Jesuits, persecution of Protestants
result of the disagreement between Henry VIII and the Pope, created the Church of England or Anglican Church which was separate from the Catholic Church, still left little room for religious freedom
The practice by which the Ottoman Empire conscripted boys from Christian families (of a conquered people), who were converted to Islam and trained by Janissary soldiers.
Infantry, originally of slave origin, armed with firearms and constituting the elite of the Ottoman army from the fifteenth century until the corps was abolished in 1826.
Descendants of Spanish-born but born in Latin America; resented inferior social, political, economic status.
Spanish-born, came to Latin America; ruled, highest social class.
Muslim state (1526-1857) exercising dominion over most of India in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
Islamic state founded by Osman in northwestern Anatolia. After the fall of the Byzantine Empire, the Ottoman Empire was based at Istanbul (formerly Constantinople) from 1453-1922. It encompassed lands in the Middle East, North Africa, the Caucasus, and eastern Europe.
Archaic tax system of the Mughal empire where decentralized lords collected tribute for the emperor.
one of Akbar's attempts to reconcile Muslim and Hindu people; a combination of Muslim, Hindu, Zoroastrian, Christian and Sikh
Also known as the Society of Jesus; founded by Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) as a teaching and missionary order to resist the spread of Protestantism; expelled from China and Japan
A Roman Catholic tribunal for investigating and prosecuting charges of heresy - especially the one active in Spain and the New World during the 1400s.
Potosi Silver Mine
silver mine in the interior of South America; great silver mountain that would bring Spanish wealth and cause massive inflation for the global economy
Accidentally invented by Chinese Daoist monks during the 9th century CE, this substance was became the dominate military technology used to expand European and Asian empires by the 15th century.
Muslim empires of the Ottoman, Safavid, and the Mughal that employed cannons and gunpowder to advance their military causes. Were not establishing colonies or building navies
Akbar the Great
Most illustrious sultan of the Mughal Empire in India (r. 1556-1605). He expanded the empire and pursued a policy of conciliation with Hindus. Tried to create a new religion (Divine Faith) that incorporated the characteristics of most major religions.
statues that uniquely combined Greek and Roman artistic traditions with native Indian art; evidence of Hellenism
Also known as popular Buddhism, is allows people more ways to reach enlightenment and Bodhisattva can help you reach enlightenment. Shows the changes in Buddhism as it spread
the oldest of the two major branches of Buddhism. Practiced mainly in Sri Lanka, Thailand, Burma, and Cambodia, its beliefs are relatively conservative, holding close to the original teachings of the Buddha
The prince who is said to have founded Buddhism.
The state of enlightenment for Buddhists.
(618-907 CE) The Chinese dynasty that was much like the Han, who used Confucianism. This dynasty had the equal-field system, a bureaucracy based on merit, and a Confucian education system.
civil service system
the Chinese practice of hiring government workers on basis of open competitive examinations and merit; exams covered Confucian classics and contributed to the rise of a scholar gentry in China
route across the Sahara desert. Major trade route that traded for gold and salt, created caravan routes, economic benefit for controlling dessert, camels played a huge role in the trading; spread Islam and led to the growth of cities such as Timbuktu; rise and wealth of the Malian Empire in West Africa
A series of holy wars from 1096-1270 AD undertaken by European Christians to free the Holy Land from Muslim rule; largely unsuccessful but led to spread of ideas and increased trade between Europe and the Middle East
the Cathedral of Holy Wisdom in Constantinople, built by order of the Byzantine Emperor Justinian
the route in between the western ports of Africa to the Caribbean and southern U.S. that carried the slave trade; horrific conditions led to deaths of hundreds of thousands of slaves
A three way system of trade during 1600-1800s Africa sent slaves to America, America sent raw materials to Europe, and Europe sent guns and rum to Africa
Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade
A trading system in which goods and humans moved between the colonies, Africa and England. Provided labor on colonial plantations.
Economic system during the Middle Ages that revolved around self-sufficient farming estates where lords and peasants shared the land; the economic side of feudalism
Individual characters made of wood or metal that can be arranged to create a job for printing and then used over again; invented in China and then spread to Europe and aided in the creation of the printing press
15th century invention which revolutionized the ability to print information which in turn affected the speed of the spread of information itself.
Within the Catholic Church, this is the remission punishment for ones sins. Such as for a sin that has already been forgiven by God but which still carries with it some kind of punishment. Centuries ago the Church would sell certificates that would get a person out of purgatory. This practice contributed to the Protestant reformation.
the selling or buying of a position in a Christian church; something Martin Luther objected to in his 95 theses
Mandate of Heaven
a political theory of ancient China in which those in power were given the right to rule from a divine source; natural disasters, peasant uprisings, food shortages, etc were all seen as indicators that a particular dynasty had lost the mandate and therefore could be overthrown and replaced
Paintings that show the racial mixing of a family. Shows hierarchy of society; often commissioned by governments to help categorize and rank people in Latin American societies based on their racial heritage
British East India Company
A joint stock company that controlled most of India during the period of imperialism. This company controlled the political, social, and economic life in India for more than 200 years.
Dutch East India Company
A company founded by the Dutch in the early 17th century to establish and direct trade throughout Asia. Richer and more powerful than England's company, they drove out the English and Established dominance over the region. It ended up going bankrupt and being bought out by the British
an Arabic term that means the "house of Islam" and that refers to lands under Islamic rule
Ruler of Mali (r. 1312-1337) in West Africa. His extravagant pilgrimage through Egypt to Mecca in 1324-1325 established the empire's reputation for wealth in the Mediterranean world.
Great Mosque of Djenne
A mosque built in the city of Timbuktu in the Malian Empire; shows the spread of Islam into West Africa and the syncretic blend of Islam and West African traditions
Great Schism of 1054
in 1054 divided medieval Christianity into the already distinct Eastern (Greek) and Western (Latin) branches, which later became known as the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church, respectively.
A stone-walled enclosure found in Southeast Africa. Associated with trade and famous for their access to ivory which was traded on the east coast of Africa
dominated trade along the east African coast; cultural was a blend of central African, Arabic, and Islamic elements
Russian landholding aristocrats; possessed less political power than their western European counterparts
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