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Terms in this set (108)
the basic functional unit of the nervous system is the
The plasma membrane of an axon is called the
Branches that may occur along an axon are called
Neurotransmitter for release is stored in ....
The most abundant
class of neuron in the central nervous system is
Neurons that have one axon and one dendrite, with the soma in between, are called
Sensory neurons of the PNS are
Neuron cell bodies in the PNS are clustered together in masses called
The glial cells in the central nervous system that form scar tissue after central nervous system injury are the
________ line the brain ventricles and spinal canal.
Which part(s) of the neuron can conduct an action potential?
The Na-K ion exchange pump actively transports
3 intracellular sodium ions for 2 extracellular potassium ions
The resting membrane potential exists mainly due to passive ________ channels.
A shift of the resting transmembrane potential toward 0 mV is called...
Opening of sodium channels in the axon membrane causes
Which type of membrane channels are found in axons?
sodium potassium channels, voltage gated channels
Which type of synapse is most common in the nervous system?
Cholinergic synapses release the neurotransmitter
The following are the steps involved in transmission at a cholinergic synapse
1. Action potential opens voltage- gated calcium channels 2. Calcium ions trigger the release of acetylcholine from synaptic vesicles 3. ACh binds to ACh- gated channels to post- synaptic cell and Na flows into cell to produce a graded depolarization 4. ACh is broken down by AChE into acetate and choline 5. Axon terminal recycles choline to make new ACh
After acetylcholinesterase acts, the synaptic knob
reabsorbs the choline
Which division of the PNS brings information to the CNS?
afferent (sensory) division
Compare presynaptic and postsynaptic cells.
Presynaptic is sending the signal from the neuron and postsynaptic is receiving the signal from the neuron
Why a CNS neuron is not usually replaced after, it is injured.
they lack centrioles so they cannot divide and replace themselves
Name the neuroglia of the CNS.
ependymal cells, microglia, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes
Which neuroglia appear in increased numbers in a person with a brain infection?
Identify the neuroglia of the PNS
Schwann cells and satellite cells
Define membrane potential
difference in electrical charge between the inside and outside of the cell
Define gated ion channels
allow Ions to pass depending on certain stimuli
Describe depolarization, repolarization, and hyperpolarization.
Depolarization is when membrane potential becomes less negative, hyperpolarization is when membrane potential becomes more negative, and repolarization is when membrane potential moves back negative after depolarization
Define action potential
the change in electrical potential associated with the passage of an impulse along the membrane of a muscle cell or nerve cell.
Describe synaptic fatigue.
The propagated change in electrical potential associated with the passage of an impulse along the membrane of a muscle cell or nerve cell.
The posterior root ganglia mainly contain
cell bodies of sensory neurons
Enlargements of the spinal cord occur
in those spinal segments that control the limbs
The spinal cord consists of five regions and ________ segments.
Blood vessels that supply the spinal cord are protected by the
Cerebrospinal fluid flows within the
Samples of CSF for diagnostic purposes are normally obtained by placing the tip of a needle in the
Subarachnoid space in the lumbar region
Of the spinal meninges, the middle one is the ______
The outward projections from the central gray matter of the spinal cord are called
In the condition ________, a virus infects posterior root ganglia, causing a painful rash whose distribution corresponds to that of the affected sensory nerves as seen in their dermatomes.
In which plexus does the ulnar nerve arise?
In ________, axon collaterals extend back toward the source of the impulse and further stimulate the earlier neurons.
A(n) ________ reflex has at least one interneuron placed between the sensory and motor neurons.
Tina falls while climbing a tree and lands on her back. Her frightened parents take her to the emergency room, where she is examined. Her knee-jerk reflex is normal and she exhibits a plantar reflex (negative Babinski reflex). These results suggest that
Did not have CNS damage
Where is spinal CSF located?
Describe a dermatome
specific bilateral region of the skin surface monitored by a single pair of spinal nerves
Damage to which nerve of the cervical plexus would interfer
e with the ability to breathe?
When an anesthetic blocks the function of the anterior rami of the cervical spinal nerves, which areas of the body will be affected?
Structures in the lateral and anterior trunk as well as the limbs
Describe the lumbar plexus and sacral plexus.
The lumbosacral plexus is a network of nerves derived from lumbar and sacral roots with each one of them dividing into anterior and posterior branches. Their communications are called lumbar plexus
Differentiate between divergent and convergent neural circuits.
Divergence allows one neuron to communicate with many neurons in a network. Convergence allows 1 neuron to receive input from many neurons in a network.
List the components of a reflex arc.
receptor, sensory neuron, integration center, motor neuron, effector
Define stretch reflex
Reflex contraction of a muscle triggered by stretch receptors in response to a rapid overextension of a muscle
Identify the basic characteristics of polysynaptic reflexes.
Interneurons, more than one spinal segment involved, reciprocal inhibition, reverberating circuits, coordinated response
During embryonic development, which of the following secondary brain vesicles will form the cerebrum?
Telencephalon and diencephalon
The floor of the diencephalon is formed by the
________ are chambers within the brain that contain cerebrospinal fluid.
Sensory information is processed and relayed to the cerebrum by the
The tracts that connect the cerebellum to the brainstem are located in the
Cerebrospinal fluid is secreted b
Ependymal cells in the choroid plexus
As CSF circulates, ________ between it and the interstitial fluid of the CNS is unrestricted between and across the ependymal cells.
The ________ provides the principal link between the nervous and endocrine systems.
A(n) ________ is a printed record of the brain's electrical activity over a period of time.
________ is a temporary cerebral disorder accompanied by abnormal movements,unusual sensations, and/or inappropriate behavior.
Difficulty in swallowing is a possible sign of............cranial nerve(s).
Glossopharyngeal and vagus CN IX,X,XI
Jean needs to have a tooth in her mandible filled. Her dentist injects a local anesthetic to block pain afferents in one of her cranial nerves. What cranial nerve does the dentist numb?
Trigeminal CN V3
Damage to the substantia nigra causes a decrease in the neurotransmitter dopamine. This causes a gradual, generalized increase in muscle tone, which is the main symptom of
Alzheimer's disease is characterized by
mental deterioration, memory loss, and personality changes
Parkinson's disease is the result of
inadequate production of dopamine by substantia nigra neurons.
Name the three primary brain vesicles
Which structures form the secondary brain vesicles?
Telencephalon, Diencephalon, Mesencephalon, Metencephalon, and Myelencephalon. (prosencephalon and rhombencephalon)
Which embryonic brain vesicle develops into the largest region of the adult brain?
Describe the role of the medulla oblongata.
helps regulate breathing, heart and blood vessel function, digestion, sneezing, and swallowing. Relays sensory information
Name the layers(From superficial to deep) that make up the cranial meninges.
outer dura mater, the middle arachnoid mater, and the inner pia mater.
Which cranial nerves are involved with the eye?
optic (II) nerve, oculomotor (III) nerve, trochlear (IV) nerve and the abducens (VI) nerve
Which cranial nerves have motor functions only?
oculomotor, trochlear, abducens, accessory, hypoglossal
Define referred pain
pain felt in a part of the body other than its actual source
Describe how rabies is contracted.
The virus is spread through the saliva of infected animals. Infected animals can spread the virus by biting another animal or a person. In rare cases, rabies can be spread when infected saliva gets into an open wound or mucous membranes, such as the mouth or eyes. Retrograde flow
The maintenance of a constant internal environment in an organism is termed
Gas exchange is to the respiratory system as absorption of nutrients is to the ________ system(s).
Which organ system removes carbon dioxide from the bloodstream?
Anatomy is to ________ as physiology is to ________.
The central principle of physiology is
structure determines function
Because the anatomy and physiology of the body's structures are interrelated, it is often said that "form determines ________.
A chemical imbalance in the blood can cause the heart to stop pumping blood, which in turn will cause other tissues and organs to cease functioning. This observation supports the view that
Which of the following is arranged in correct order from the most complex to the simplest?
What is the smallest living level of organization?
Which of the following cell types is long, slender and makes contractions?
Which type of blood cells carry oxygen and carbon dioxide?
red blood cells
Which type of cells recycle the calcium and phosphate stored there?
bone cells/ osteocytes
Which type of cells are spherical and contain energy molecules?
fat cells/ lipocytes
________ is the study of tissue structures.
Which of the following tissues covers and protects exposed surface areas of the body?
Which of the following tissues fills internal spaces and provides structural support?
Which organ system provides support, protection of soft tissue, mineral storage, and blood formation?
Protection from environmental hazards is a function of the ________ system.
Which organ system transports nutrients, metabolic wastes, gases, and defense cells?
Directing long-term changes in the activities of other organ systems is the major function of the ________ system.
Which one of the following is not a characteristic of the endocrine system?
short-term, electrical, fast
The heart is an example of an
Elimination of excess water, salts, and waste products are functions of the ________ system.
Which gastrointestinal organ is responsible for bile secretion and regulation of blood nutrient composition?
liver- secretes bile, gallbladder- stores bile
What is the primary function of kidneys?
Excretion of waste products
Define the term biology
The study of life
The smallest stable units of matter are
Molecules that store and process genetic information are
nucleic acid/ DNA
What is an important characteristic of amino acid uracil?
uracil is only found in RNA
The structure of RNA differs from DNA in that
the backbone of RNA contains ribose and DNA contains deoxyribose
List examples of representative lipids in the body.
Fatty acids, glyserides, eicosanoids, steroids, phospholipids, glycolipids
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