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PYS 379 Final Study Guide
Terms in this set (30)
Name the most PREVALENT mental disorders IN THE UNITED STATES (list the percentages, the year it was taken)
Prevalence by Mental & Substance Use Disorder, World 2017
1. Anxiety = 3.76%
2. Depression = 3.44%
3. Alcohol Use Disorder = 1.4 %
4. Drug Use Disorder = 0.94%
Name the most PREVALENT mental disorders IN THE UNITED STATES (list the percentages, the year it was taken, the total of the population and co-morbid total) (What does co-morbid mean?)
Total: 15-20% of population meets criteria for anxiety or depression at a given time.
50% are co-morbid. Refers to more than one disorders or diseases that exist alongside a primary diagnosis, which is the reason a patient gets referred and/or treated.
Out of the 4 most PREVALENT mental disorders IN THE UNITED STATES name the TOP 2.
Describe the BIO-PSYCHO-SOCIAL PATHWAYS through which stress may contribute to each of the (TOP 4) MENTAL DISORDERS in the UNITED STATES (BOTH IN-DIRECT & DIRECT PATHWAYS) #1
Describe the BIO-PSYCHO-SOCIAL PATHWAYS through which stress may contribute to each of the (TOP 4) MENTAL DISORDERS in the UNITED STATES (BOTH IN-DIRECT & DIRECT PATHWAYS) #2
Describe the BIO-PSYCHO-SOCIAL PATHWAYS through which stress may contribute to each of the (TOP 4) MENTAL DISORDERS in the UNITED STATES (BOTH IN-DIRECT & DIRECT PATHWAYS) #3
Describe the BIO-PSYCHO-SOCIAL PATHWAYS through which stress may contribute to each of the (TOP 4) MENTAL DISORDERS in the UNITED STATES (BOTH IN-DIRECT & DIRECT PATHWAYS) #4
What is Heterogeneity?
Heterogeneity signifies diversity within a group or sample.
What is Homogeneity?
Homogeneity is when samples are more alike than different within a group sample.
Primary Features of Depression?
1. Anhedonia: Loss of Pleasure
2. Unrelenting, repetitive, and SELF-SUSTAINING NEGATIVE thoughts and feelings about self & the world.
3. Vegetative Symptoms/Psycho-motor Retardation (Slower speech, thoughts, movements)
What is Anhedonia? And what is it a feature of?
The loss of pleasure
> A primary feature of Depression
What are some examples of Unrelenting, repetitive, and SELF-SUSTAINING NEGATIVE thoughts and feelings about self & the world. And what is it a feature of ?
(Guilt, low-self esteem, cognitive distortions)
> A primary feature of depression.
What are some examples of Vegetative Symptoms/Psycho-motor Retardation. And what is it a feature of?
(Slower speech, thoughts, movements)
> Primary feature of Depression.
Depression: The heterogeneity in symptoms for Depression hints towards what?
Hints towards complicated interactions among underlying neurotransmitters.
Since the Heterogeneity in the symptoms of depression hint toward a complicated interactions among underlying neurotransmitters what are some of the interactions?
1. Major Dep. Dis. (sym. pres. long than 2 weeks)
2. Persistent Dep. Dis. (sym. pres. most days 2 year)
3. Bipolar Dep. (Dep epis. w/ manias of bipolar dis.)
4. Postpartum Dep. (after delivery of baby)
5. Premenstrual Dysphoric Dis. (sig. mood sym. during)
6. Seasonal Affective Dis. (dep. epis. in winter months)
7. Atypical Dep. (dep. epis. w/ reactive moods, increased appetite, & sleep)
What are neurotransmitters? and why are they used?
They are chemical messengers. They send information between neurons by crossing a synapse.
Why? because Electrical signals are not able to cross the gap between most neurons. They are changed into chemical signals to cross the gap.
What happens to leftover neurotransmitters?
What is Acetylcholine? and what is its purpose?
Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter, which is a chemical released by a nerve cell or neuron. ...
Acetylcholine causes muscles to contract, activates pain responses and regulates endocrine and REM sleep functions.
What is a Neuron? How many Neurons do we have? and What is its purpose?
> Neuron is a NERVE CELL
> Brains contain around 85 Billion Neurons.
> The PRIMARY FUNCTIONAL UNIT of the NERVOUS SYSTEM. Both Chemical & Electrical
What is inside a Neuron?
> Soma - Cell Body - Contains Nucleus (DNA sequence)
> AXON - Action Potential
> Axon Terminals - Synaptic Buttons
What is a Dendrite? What is its purpose?
> Branches that arise from the Cell body/Soma.
They are connected to other neurons and are used to receive chemical or electrical messages/signals from other neurons.
> What is the Soma - Cell Body? and what is inside ? and what is its purpose?
The Soma is the body of the Neuron which contains the Nucleus. The nucleus contains the DNA or genetic material of the Cell.
The Soma takes the info received from dendrites and puts it together and transfers it to the Axon-Hil-Lock.
What is a Axon-Hil-Lock ? What is its purpose?
The Axon-Hil-Lock is next to the Soma/Cell Body and it receives the information from the Soma.
If the info is strong enough then the signal is sent to the AXON.
What is the Axon? What is "Action Potential" and what is the purpose of Myelin?
>The signal goes from the Axon-Hil-Lock to the AXON.
>Once in the Axon, signal is called "Action Potential".
>The "Action Potential" is protected by Myelin which is an insulator to help prevent the signal from degrading. (travels quicker) (Nerve Fiber)
What are the Axon Terminals - Synaptic Buttons? What are their purpose?
It is the last step of the function of a Neuron. The Axon terminal is where the neurotransmitters are transferred into another Neurons Dendrites.
What is a synapse?
A synapse is an area where two neurons come close enough to one another that they are able to pass chemical signals from one cell to another.
What is the synaptic cleft?
a microscopic gap between the terminal button of one neuron and the cell membrane of another neuron
What is a presynaptic neuron?
the neuron where the signal is STARTED
What is a postsynaptic neuron?
The neuron that receives the signal.
Name the three neurotransmitters that are most closely associated with depression and explain how levels of these neurotransmitters at the post-synaptic neuron differ among individual with depression, as well as which is associated with each primary feature of depression.
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