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H106 Final Exam Terms IU
Terms in this set (59)
This individual was appointed chairman of the Securities and Exchange Commission. This commission was the "police force" of Wall Street—new regulations for trading stocks
Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact ("Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact")
A neutrality pact between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union signed in Moscow on August 23, 1939, by foreign ministers Joachim von Ribbentrop and Vyacheslav Molotov, respectively.
The clauses of the Nazi-Soviet Pact provided a written guarantee of peace by each party towards the other, and a declared commitment that neither government would ally itself to, or aid an enemy of the other party.
Roosevelt's State of the Union address.
-Freedom of speech and expression
-Freedom of every person to worship God in his own way
-Freedom from want
-Freedom from fear
IU's most famous dropout & he became known for his detailed coverage of World War II and its impact on the soldiers. He was recalled from Europe and was sent to the Pacific Theater to report on it. On Okiwana - the last major battle of the war -he was killed by sniper fire on April 18, 1945.
"Zoot Suit Riots"
In 1943 sailors went into Long Beach, CA and attacked mainly Hispanic residents or anyone wearing a Zoot Suit. The riot would last four days and the style of the suit would be banned. It riot was created due to excess of the suit which went against the rationing mindset of war time America.
Japanese-American Internment (Executive Order 9066)
In 1942 FDR ordered the relocation and internment of 127,000 Japanese Americans from areas within California. This was due to the fear of them holding sympathy toward Imperial Japan. The act was upheld by the Supreme Court in 1944.
The policy of Containment began under the Truman administration and the main idea was the US would combat and try to contain the spread of Communism by any means possible. This was seen in Greece with the US sending billions in aid to stop communist uprisings and in the Korean War.
American general, who commanded allied troops in the Pacific during World War II. He received the Medal of Honor for his service in the Philippines Campaign, which made him and his father Arthur MacArthur Jr. the first father and son to be awarded the medal.
National Security Act
The act was created to reshape the countries military and diplomatic institution. It created the Department of Defense to oversee the entirety of the US military. A National Security Council would operate of the White House on foreign and military policy. The CIA was created to collect information in open and covert methods.
Rhythm and Blues
A form of popular music of African-American origin that arose during the 1940s from blues, with the addition of driving rhythms taken from jazz. It was an immediate precursor of rock and roll.
The founder of Sun Records in Memphis, TN and was a large contributor to the emergence of Rock N' Roll in the 50's. He worked with and launched the careers of several famous artists like Howlin' Wolf, Johnny Cash, and the most famous being Elvis Presley. He would sell Sun in 1969.
J. Robert Oppenheimer
During midst of WWII, he was the architect of the atomic bomb. Lived a difficult life and was later associated with the Communists during the 1930's.
A Republican senator from Wisconsin; he rose to national promise due to his aggressive stance toward communists and his supposed list of communist sympathisers. This fed into the Red Scare and general hate toward communism. This culminated into a TV trial against the military, and was the beginning of McCarthy's downfall as the nation saw him bullying those on trial.
J. Edgar Hoover
First Director of the FBI. FBI agent during the Red Scares. He went after gangsters, organized crime and supposed Communists within American borders in the 1950's. Much secretive information was exposed about people's private lives as he took charge looking for any suspicious characters supporting Communism.
This poem of the Beat Generation expressed what the counterculture stood for at the time. The title refers to cry against the capitalism and materialism of the fifties. It also refers to the author's own experiences as it talks about being an outcast in a society that rejects him for what he his. These are all things that would go on to lay the groundwork for the counterculture movement in the sixties.
A typical midwesterner who travels to the West Coast to hit it big. He symbolizes a new sense of youth culture and rebellion.
Dr. Benjamin Spock
Pediatrician and author of the Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care (1946), which emphasized children's need for the love and care of full-time mothers
Brown v. Topeka Board of Education
One black daughter, Linda Brown, was forced to go to an all black Monroe school. It was expressed by Brown's family that segregated public schools were NOT equal and cannot be made equal, depriving blacks from equal protection of the laws. The decision was made that the Brown family was indeed unfairly treated, along with other black students who were prohibited from attending white schools, and school segregation would attempt to become banned with all deliberate speed.
American civil rights lawyer, first black justice on the Supreme Court of the United States. Marshall was a tireless advocate for the rights of minorities and the poor.
Montgomery Bus Boycott
This was a social protest against the policy of racial segregation on public buses in the south that required blacks to sit in the back of the bus. It started on Dec. 5th 1955 when Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat on the bus to a white a passenger. It lasted until Dec. 20th, 1956 when Browder v. Gayle passed by the Supreme Court ruled that racial segregation was unconstitutional.
Martin Luther King
A Baptist Minister who was a major player in the Civil Rights from its start in 1954 until his death in 1968. He lead the Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955), was the president of the SCLC (1957), Lead a non-violent protest in Birmingham, AL (1963), and helped organize the March on Washington (1963) where he delivered the "I Have A Dream Speech." He was killed by James Earl Ray in 1968.
Interstate Highway Act
(1956) Eisenhower's 20 year plan to build 41,000 miles of highway; largest public works project in history
The term Eisenhower used in his farewell address in 1961 to describe the influence of the military on society. He warned the growing military would use its influence in government and politics to advance its own agenda.
This name refers to seven large suburban neighborhoods built William Levitt for returning veterans from the war in 1947. These towns were built with a streamlined process that if done effectively could allow a house to be built in a day with about 27 workers. This created the stereotypical suburban life as each house had a picket fence, green lawns, and new appliances.
The Bay of Pigs
The plan to arm and train Cuban rebels so that they return to fight and overthrow the Castro Regime. The plan was started under the Eisenhower Administration and executed under the Kennedy Administration and the plan ended with complete failure. Kennedy denied air support to the operation as he did not want to draw the US into direct conflict which may have lead to its downfall.
Cuban Missile Crisis
In '62 the Americans found the Soviets putting nukes in Cuba to counter the nukes that America had in Turkey. This lead to a blockade against the Soviets and the eventual agreement that both pull out their missiles and the establishment of the Washington-Moscow hotline.
Students for a Democratic Statement (SDS)
A "New Left" organization that challenged both liberalism and the "Old Left" of communism and socialism. They sought to reinvigorate American democracy.
"The Feminine Mystique"
Written by Betty Friedan and published in '63 it looked at how many women had become housewives. It looked not only at the lives of the women, but at the psychology, media, advertising.
A biracial direct action group that was active during the early 1960s. They were convinced that change needed to happen on the streets and not within the courts. The members risked their lives participating in state to state travel while riding on an integrated bus.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
A landmark civil rights act passed that outlawed discrimination based race, sex, religion, etc. It banned segregation in schools and in the workforce.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
Designed to enforce voting rights guaranteed by the fourteenth and fifteenth amendments. It secured the right to vote for racial minorities throughout the country especially in the South.
Known as Malcolm Little he joined the Nation of Islam and worked to bring it to the national stage. He separated from MLK stating that violence would be needed to obtain true equality. He left the Nation of Islam and journeyed to Mecca and returned with a new sense of blacks and whites living together. He was gunned down in 1965
An American record executive, record producer, songwriter, film producer and television producer. He is best known as the founder of the Motown record label and its subsidiaries, which was the highest-earning African-American business for decades.
Republican Presidential candidate in the 1964 election and lost to Lyndon Johnson. He attacked the federal income tax, the Social Security system, the Tennessee Valley Authority, civil rights legislation, the nuclear test-ban treaty, and the Great Society (Johnson's program that reflected the New Deal). He was basically against the New Deal policies that Roosevelt created. His extreme conservatism scared many people and many observers declared American conservatism finished once he had shown what he supported and what he was against.
A black political organization that was against peaceful protest and for violence if needed. The organization marked a shift in policy of the black movement, favoring militant ideals rather than peaceful protest.
The hardline Conservative Democrat Governor of Alabama during the 60's. In '63 he blocked the entrance of black students into the University of Alabama and gave the speech that said he stood for Segregation today, Segregation tomorrow, and Segregation forever. He would go on to run for president in '68 as an independent taking 13% of the vote and run for president in '72 where he was shot in the back thus ending his campaign.
Was one of the largest military campaigns of the Vietnam War, launched on January 30, 1968, by forces of the Viet Cong and North Vietnamese People's Army of Vietnam against the forces of the South Vietnamese Army of the Republic of Vietnam, the United States Armed Forces, and their allies.
He was a Democrat who ran for president in 1968 promoting civil rights and other equality based ideals. He was ultimately assassinated in 1968, leaving Nixon to take the presidency but instilling hope in many Americans.
Riots occurred in Chicago at this time; they were sparked in part by the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. Violence and chaos followed, with people flooding out onto the streets of major cities, primarily in black urban areas. Rioters and police in Chicago were particularly aggressive, and the damage was severe
"The Silent Majority"
Term used by President Nixon to describe Americans who opposed the counterculture and who do not express their opinions publicly.
The idea that Nixon and Kissinger had to train and equip the South Vietnamese troops to assume the burden of the war. It helped withdraw troops from South Vietnam, but it didn't break the stalemate of the war.
Daniel P. Moynihan
An American politician, sociologist, and diplomat. A member of the Democratic Party, he represented New York in the United States Senate and served as an adviser to Republican U.S. President Richard Nixon.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
The EPA was founded in 1970 by the Nixon Administration to begin access the damage done to nature by the government and the industry. It would be in charge of handling the law against those who broke the laws it set to protect the environment.
"White House Plumbers"
A covert White House Special Investigations Unit, established within a week after the publication of the "Pentagon Papers" in June 1971, during the presidency of Richard Nixon. Its task was to stop and/or respond to the leaking of classified information, such as the Pentagon Papers, to the news media.
An American economist, activist and former United States military analyst who, while employed by the RAND Corporation, released the Pentagon Papers, a top-secret Pentagon study of the U.S. government decision-making in relation to the Vietnam War, to The New York Times and other newspapers.
During the 1972 games he set a swimming record with seven gold medals that stood until Michael Phelps received eight in 2008. Swam at Indiana University.
Wrote the "Positive Woman", a book about the false assumptions of feminism, and fights against the Equal Rights Amendment. She says the greatest pleasure a woman can have, as well as saying it is what makes a woman unique, is having and raising a child. This would help lead the fight against the Equal Rights Amendment.
A series of spontaneous, violent demonstrations by members of the gay (LGBT) community against a police raid that took place in the early morning hours of June 28, 1969, at the Stonewall Inn, located in the Greenwich Village Neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City.
"Crisis of Confidence" Speech
A speech made before the American people; Carter talked about the issues that Americans would face as well as problems Americans had with themselves. He talks about the falling productivity of the American worker, failure of the American army in Vietnam, and over reliance on OPEC which would cause an energy crisis.
-This speech would mark a moment in history where the President would talk down to the American people and tell them they are part of the problem.
Roe v. Wade
A landmark Supreme Court in 1973 that found due to the nature of the privacy under 14th Amendment extended to women and gave them the right to have abortions. This right was balanced against the state's interest in regulating abortion, protecting the women's health, and protecting the sanctity of human life.
A partial meltdown of reactor number 2 of Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station in Dauphin County, Pennsylvania; caused U.S. to strengthen nuclear regulatory laws.
The Iran-Iraq War began on September 22nd 1980, when Iraq invaded Iran, and it ended on August 20th 1988, when Iran accepted the UN-brokered ceasefire. Iraq wanted to replace Iran as the dominant Persian Gulf state, and was worried the 1979 Iranian Revolution would lead Iraq's Shi'ite majority to rebel against the Ba'athist government. The war also followed a long history of border disputes.
A theory developed by supply-side economist Arthur Laffer to show the relationship between tax rates and the amount of tax revenue collected by governments. The curve is used to illustrate Laffer's main premise that the more an activity such as production is taxed, the less of it is generated. Arthur Laffer predicted that lower tax rates would generate so much economic activity that federal tax revenues would actually increase.
Col. Oliver North
Member of the US National Security Council during the Iran-Contra Affair; key player in diverting money from the sale of weapons to the Nicarguan contras; never convicted of any wrong doing.
The Contract with America
Drafted by Newt Gingrich
Focused on bringing Republicans back into congress
"Laundry list" of propaganda
Bosnia and Rwanda
The genocide in Bosnia was particularly shocking because it occurred less than one year after the 1994 genocide in Rwanda, during which members of the Hutu majority killed approximately 800,000 people in a gruesome ethnic cleansing campaign against the Tutsi minority.
Former associate of Clarence Thomas, who accused him of sexual harassment in Senate Judiciary Committee hearings.
Bush v. Gore
This case ruled in favor of Bush by saying that recounting the votes in certain counties of Florida was unconstitutional because of equal protection of the law; Gore's wish to make the process as simple and painless as possible backfired
(Under Bush) allowed the government to connect into phone/email conversations.
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