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471 terms

CBCC prep

This is my collection of flashcards.
STUDY
PLAY
Steps of the Scientific Method
1. Ask a Question
2. Do Background Research
3. Construct a Hypothesis
4. Test Your Hypothesis by Doing an Experiment
5. Analyze Your Data and Draw a Conclusion
6. Communicate Your Results
3-term contingency
Basic unit of analysis in the analysis of operant behavior
Analytic
Demonstrate a functional relation
Antecedent
Environmental conditions or stimulus changes that occur prior to the behavior of interest
Antecedent stimulus class
Stimuli that share a common relationship
Applied Behavioral Analysis
The science in which tactics derived from the principles of behavior are applied to improve socially significant behavior and experimentation is used to identify the variables responsible for the improvement of the behavior.
Automatic reinforcement
Reinforcement that occurs independent of the social mediation of others
Automaticity of reinforcement
Behavior is modified by it's consequences regardless of whether the individual is aware of reinforcement
Aversive stimulus
Stimulus conditions whose termination functions as reinforcement
Avoidance Contingency
A contingency in which a response prevents or postpones the presentation of a stimulus
Backup Reinforcer
Reinforcers that can be purchased with tokens
Backward chaining
A teaching procedure in which all behaviors are initially completed by the trainer except for the final behavior in the chain.
Behavior
The portion of an organism's interaction with its environment
Behavior chain
Specific sequence of responses in which each response produces a stimulus change that functions as conditioned reinforcement for that response and an Sd for the next response.
Behavior chain with limited hold
A sequence of behaviors that must be performed correctly and within a specified time to be reinforced.
Behavioral contract
A document that specifies a contingent relationship between the completion of a specified behavior and access to a reinforcer.
Behavioral cusp
A behavior that has sudden and dramatic consequences that extend beyond the change because it exposes the person to new environments, reinforcers, contingencies, responses and stimulus control
Behaviorism
Philosophy of the science of behavior
Concept Formulation
Stimulus control that requires both stimulus generalization within a class of stimuli and discrimination between classes of stimuli
Conditioned reinforcer
A stimulus change that functions as a reinforcer because of prior pairing with one or more other reinforcers
Conditioned stimulus
Stimulus component of a conditioned reflex
Consequence
Stimulus change that follows a behavior of interest
Contingency
Dependent and/or temporal relations between operant behaviors and its controlling variables
Contingent observation
Person is put in time out within setting so they can see ongoing activities but access to reinforcers is lost
Continuous measurement
Measurement conducted in a manner in which all instances of the response classes of interest are detected during observation period
Count
Number of occurrences of a behavior
Deprivation
How much time has elapsed since it has consumed or contacted a reinforcer
Determinism
The universe if a lawful orderly place, phenomena occur in relation to other events and not in an accidental fashion
Discriminated operant
An operant that occurs more frequently under some antecedent conditions than under others
Discriminated stimulus
Stimulus in the presence of which responses of some type have been reinforced and in the absence of which the same type of responses have not been reinforced.
DRA
Differential Reinforcement of Alternate behavior
DRH
Differential reinforcement of high rates
DRI
Differential reinforcement of incompatible behavior
DRO
Differential reinforcement of other behavior
Duration
The length of time a behavior occurs
Empiricism
The objective observation of the phenomena of interest
Escape contingency
A response in which a response terminates (escapes from) an ongoing stimulus
Establishing operant
Motivating operant that increases effectiveness of stimulus as a reinforcer
Event recording
Count of the number of times a behavior occurs
Exclusion time out
Person is removed physically from the environment for a specified period
Explanatory fiction
A fictitious variable that takes another name for the observed phenomena it claims to explain and contributes nothing
Extinction
The discontinuing of a reinforcement for a previously reinforced behavior
Extinction burst
An increase in the frequency of responding when an extinction procedure initially implemented
Feature stimulus class
Stimuli that share common physical forms or structures or relative relationships. "made from wood".
Forward chaining
A teaching procedure that begins with the learning being prompted to perform the first behavior, trainer completes remaining steps.
Functional Relation
Establishing a consistent effect on the DV by manipulating the IV, unlikely to be a result of extraneous variables.
Dependent variable DV
The variable measured to determine if it changes as a result if manipulating the IV
Experiment
A comparison of some measure of the DV under 2 or more different conditions in which one factor at a time (IV) differs from one condition to another.
General case analysis
Process for identifying and selecting examples that represent the full range of stimulus variations and response requirements in the generalization settings.
generalization
A generic term for a variety of behavioral processes and behavior change outcomes.
habilitation
When a person's repertoire has been changed so that the short and long-term REINFORCERS are Maximized and short and long-term PUNISHERS are Minimized
habituation
A decrease in responsiveness to repeated presentation of a stimulus
History of reinforcement
All of a person's LEARNING experiences
Imitation behavior
A behavior controlled by physical movement as a model, has similarity with the model and immediately follows the model.
Independent variable
The variable that is systematically manipulated to see whether it produces reliable changes in the DV
Indescriminable contingency
A contingency in which the learner cannot discriminate whether the next response will produce reinforcement. (Reinforces some but not all occurrences of responses)
IOA
2 or more observes report the same observed values after measuring the same events
IRT Inter Response Time
Time elapsed between 2 successive responses
Level system
Type of token economy systems in which participants move up or down a hierarchy of levels contingent on meeting criteria with respect to the target behaviors.
Mentalism
Assumes that a mental or inner dimension exists that differs from behavior.
methodological behaviorism
A philosophic position that views behavioral events that cannot be publicly observed outside the realm of science.
Momentary time sampling
Behaviors are recorded at precisely specified intervals
Motivating Operant
An environmental variable that (a) alters (increases or decreases) the reinforcing effectiveness of some stimulus, object, or event and (b) alters (increases or decreases) the current frequency of all behavior that have been reinforced by that stimulus, object, or event".
Multiple examplar training
Used for setting/situation generalization. Using different stimuli within the same stimulus class to teach a concept.
Negative punishment
A response behavior is followed immediately by the removal of a stimulus (or a decrease in the intensity of the stimulus), that decreases the future frequency of similar responses under similar conditions.
Negative reinforcement
A contingency where the occurrence of a response produces the removal, termination, reduction, or postponement of a stimulus, which leads to an increase in the future occurrence of that response".
Non-exclusion time out
Person remains within setting but does not have access to reinforcers for a specified period
Observer drift
An unintended change in the way an observer uses a measurement system that results in error.
Ontogeny
The history of the development of an individual organism during its lifetime.
Operant behavior
Any behavior whose future frequency is determined by its history of consequences.
Operant conditioning
The process by which operant learning occurs; consequences result in an increased or decreased frequency of behavior in the future.
Parsimony
Practice of ruling out simple, logical explanations before considering more complex explanations
Partial Interval Recording
Time sampling method in which observation period is divided into brief time intervals, observer records whether the behavior occurs at any time during the interval
Philosophic Doubt
The continuing questioning of what is regarded as truth.
The history of the natural evolution of a species.
Phylogeny
Observer records whether each person in a group is engaged in the target behavior at specific points in time
PLACHECK
A behavior is followed immediately by the presentation of a stimulus that decreases the future frequency of the behavior.
Positive punishment
Occurs when a behavior is followed immediately by the presentation of a stimulus that increases the future frequency of the behavior in similar conditions.
Positive reinforcement
A stimulus whose presentation or onset functions as reinforcement.
Positive reinforcer
A principle that states that making the opportunity to engage in a high-probability behavior contingent on the occurrence of a low-frequency behavior will function as reinforcement for the low-frequency behavior.
Premack principle
Taking elements of the generalization environment and adding them to the teaching environment.
Programming Common Stimuli
the degree which two or more observers report the same observed values after measuring the same events. It is the most common indicator of measurement quality in ABA.
Interobserver agreement (IOA)
Recording antecedent, behavior, consequence streams. Used in descriptive assessments.
ABC recording
responsive to stimulation
reactivity
Direct and repeated observations of a client's behavior in the natural environment are the preferred method for determining which behaviors to target for change. The observer records a descriptive, temporally sequenced account of all behaviors of interest and the antecedent conditions and consequences for those behaviors as those events occur. This technique produces behavioral assessment data that can be used to identify potential target behaviors.
anecdotal recording
holds that only behaviors likely to produce reinforcement in the person's natural environment should be targeted for change
relevance of behavior rule
A checklist that provides descriptions of specific skills (usually in hierarchical order) and the conditions under which each skill should be observed. Some checklists are designed to assess one particular behavior or skill area. Others address multiple behavior or skill areas. Most use a Likert scale to rate responses.
behavior checklist
refers to the extent to which target behaviors are appropriate, intervention procedures are acceptable, and important and significant changes in target and collateral behaviors are produced
social validity
A form of evaluation that involves a full range of inquiry methods (observation, interview, testing, and the systematic manipulation of antecedent or consequence variables) to identify probably antecedent and consequent controlling variables. These are designed to discover resources, assets, significant others, competing contingencies, maintenance and generality factors, and possible reinforcer and/or punishers that surround the potential target behavior.
behavioral assessment
an isolated behavior selected as the object for a behavior change program
target behavior
a behavior that has sudden and dramatic consequences that extend well beyond the idiosyncratic change itself because it exposes the person to new environments, reinforcers, contingencies, responses, and stimulus controls
behavioral cusp
Defines instances of the targeted response class by the shape or form of the behavior.
topography-based definition
an assessment protocol that acknowledges complex interrelationships between environment and behavior - a method for obtaining data across multiple settings and persons
ecological assessment
designates responses as members of the targeted response class solely by their common effect on the environment
function-based definition
(adjustment) occurs when a person's repertoire has been changed such that short- and long-term reinforcers are maximized and short- and long-term punishers are minimized
habilitation
a process for evaluating and correcting table structures to minimize data redundancies, thereby reducing the likelihood of data anomalies
normalization
a type of graph in which the lengths of bars are used to represent and compare data in categories
bar graph
a three step form of reasoning that begins with a true antecedent-consequent (if-A-then-B) statement and proceeds as follows: (1) If A is true, then B is true; (2) B is found to be true: (3) therefore, A is true. Although other factors could be responsible for the truthfulness of A, a sound experiment affirms several if-A-then-B possibilities, each one reducing the likelihood of factors other than the independent variable being responsible for the observed changes in behavior.
affirmation of the consequent
(statistics) a variable whose values are independent of changes in the values of other variables
independent variable
shows an increasing trend in the behavior overtime
ascending baseline
the characteristic of an experiment that allows one to draw accurate inferences about the causal relationship between an independent and dependent variable
internal validity
A systematic approach for interpreting the results of behavioral research and treatment programs that entails visual inspection of graphed data for variability, level, and trend within and between experimental conditions.
visual analysis
refers to the fact that every instance of behavior occurs during some amount of time
temporal extent
Refers to the fact that every instance of behavior occurs at a certain point in time with respect to other events (i.e., when in time behavior occurs can be measured); often measured in terms of response latency and inter-response time (IRT). One of the three dimensional quantities of behavior from which all behavioral measurements are derived .
temporal locus
(n.) the length of time that something continues or lasts
duration
the elapsed time from the onset of a stimulus (e.g., task direction, cue) to the initiation of a response
response latency
Any operant whose response rate is controlled by a given opportunity to emit the response. Each discrete response occurs when an opportunity to respond exists. Synonymous technical terms: restricted operant, controlled operants; contrast with free operant
discrete trial
measurement procedure for obtaining a tally or count of the number of times a behavior occurs
event recording
A behavior that, when learned, produces corresponding modifications or covariation in other untrained behaviors; compare to BEHAVIORAL CUSP
pivotal behavior
A variation of momentary time sampling in which the observer records whether each person in a group is engaged in the target behavior at specific points in time; provides a measure of "group behavior"
planned activity check (PLACHECK)
A three phase experimental design consisting of an initial baseline phase (A) until steady state responding is obtained, an intervention phase in which the treatment condition (B) is implemented until the behavior has changed and steady state responding is obtained, and a return to baseline conditions (A) by withdrawing the independent variable to see whether responding "reverses" to levels observed in the initial baseline
A-B-A design
A-B-A design with addition of second intervention phase to see if initial treatment effects are replicated
A-B-A-B design
A three phase experimental design that begins with the treatment condition. After steady state responding has been obtained during the initial treatment phase (B), the treatment variable is withdrawn (A) to see whether responding changes in the absence of the independent variable. The treatment variable is then reintroduced (B) in an attempt to recapture the level of responding obtained during the first treatment phase.
B-A-B design
A special form of event recording; a measure of the number of responses or practice opportunities needed for a person to achieve a pre-established level of accuracy or proficiency
trials-to-criterion
The principle that a less frequently performed behavior can be increased in frequency by reinforcing it with a more frequent behavior. It's a simple case of Grandma's Rule: if you do what I want, then I'll do what you want.
Premack Principle
A stimulus change that decreases the future frequency of behavior that immediately precedes it.
Punisher
Occurs when stimulus change immediately follows a response and decreases the future frequency of that type of behavior in similar conditions.
Punishment
Radical Behaviorism
A form of behaviorism that attempts to understand all human behavior including private and public events
Ratio Strain
Abrupt increases in ratio when moving from denser to thinner reinforcement schedules
Reactivity (aba)
Effects of an observation and measurement procedure on the behavior being measured if person is aware of observer's presence
Reflex
A stimulus-response relation consisting of an antecedent stimulus and the respondent behavior it elicits.
Reinforcement
Occurs when a stimulus change immediately follows a response and increases the future frequency of that type of behavior in similar conditions.
Reinforcer
A stimulus change that increases the future frequency of behavior that immediately precedes it.
Reinforcer assessment
Concurrent schedule, multiple schedule, progressive ratio.
Reliability
Consistency of measurement
Repertoire
All of the behaviors a person can do.
Replication
Repeating conditions to determine the reliability and increase internal validity, and to determine the generality of findings of previous experiments
Response
A single instance or occurrence of a specific class or type of behavior
Response blocking
Therapist physically blocks the behavior
Response class
Behaviors all function the same way. A group of responses of varying topography, all of which produce the same effect on the environment".
Response cost
The contingent loss of reinforcers (i.e. fine) producing a decrease of the frequency of behavior
Response generalization
A learner has learned one or more responses ans can respond in slightly different ways that are functionally equivalent.
Response latency
Elapsed time between onset of a stimulus and initiation of a response
Response maintenance
Generalization across time after the intervention has been discontinued.
Satiation
A decrease in the frequency of behavior presumed to be the result of continued contact with or consumption of a reinforcer that has followed the behavior.
When does aversion work best according to research:
1) the program is part of the individual's natural environment;

2) a biologically appropriate aversive stimulus is used, preferably in the same modality as the target behavior;

3) person is encouraged to take self-control of the situation;

4) the aversion conditioning is combined with positive reinforcement of adaptive responses
What conditions have systematic desensitization been shown to useful?
phobias
John B. Watson
Father of Modern Behaviorism, Little Albert white rat phobia experiment
variable ratio schedule (VR)
reinforcement occurs after a variable # of responses. E.g. VR-10--person receives reinforcement on AVERAGE 1 per every 10 behaviors, but on some trials will receive after 2 occurrences on others after 15. Gambling an example of VR schedule. relationship b/w behavior & reinforcement unpredictable--creates high & constant rate of responding. behavior becomes most resistant to extinction
Variable Interval Schedule (VI)
behavior is unpredictably reinforced
Transfer of Training
Formal study of certain subjects strengthens intellectual functions. Transfer is caused by similarity of concepts & techniques, not the development of intellectual or memory faculties.
Trace Conditioning
form of conditioning in which a longer delay separates the conditioned and unconditioned stimuli; neutral stimulus presented first, removed, then the unconditioned stimulus is presented.
token economy
a structured environment is established in which tokens (points, tickets, stickers, etc) are used as reinforcers for targeted behaviors. response cost is often also involved
time-out
secluding or ignoring an individual so that access to reinforcers is cut-off for a specified, short period of time. Based on punishment
Schedule thinning
Gradually increasing the response ratio or time interval
Science
A systematic approach to understanding of natural phenomena
Shaping
Using differential reinforcement to produce a series of gradually changing response classes; each response class is a successive approximation toward a terminal behavior.
Spontaneous Recovery
Extinction effect; when behavior suddenly begins to occur after frequency has decreased to reinforcement level or stopped entirely
Stimulus
An energy change that affects an organism through its receptor cells.
Stimulus class
Respond same way to different stimuli. A group of stimuli that share specified common elements along formal, temporal, and/or functional dimensions".
Stimulus control
When the rate, latency, duration, or amplitude of a behavior is altered by the presence or absence of an antecedent stimulus.
Stimulus delta
A stimulus in the presence of which a given behavior has not produced reinforcement in the past
Stimulus generalization
When an antecedent stimulus evokes a response that has been reinforced, the same type of behavior tends to be evoked by stimuli that share similar physical properties with the controlling stimulus
Stimulus preference assessment
1. Asking the person or significant others.

2. Observing the person.

3. Measuring person's response to trial based tests.
Stimulus pairing
A procedure in which 2 stimuli are presented at the same time, usually repeatedly for a number of trials, which often results in one stimulus acquiring the function of the other stimulus".
Task analysis
Process of breaking a complex skill or series of behavior into smaller, teachable units.
Three term contingency
The relationship between a discriminative stimulus, an operant behavior, and a reinforcer or punisher. Antecedent stimulus, behavior, and consequence.
Token economy
Participants earn generalized conditioned reinforcers as immediate consequence for specific behaviors, then exchange them for backup reinforcers.
systematic desensitization
a type of counter-conditioning that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli
3 levels of scientific understanding
Description, prediction, control
Analytic
Demonstrates a functional relation between manipulated events and a reliable change in some measurable dimension of the behavior.
Applied
Commitment to affecting improvements in behaviors that enhance and improve people's lives
Applied Behavioral Analysis
The science in which tactics derived from the principles of behavior are applied to socially significant behavior and experimentation is used to identify the variables responsible for the improvement in behavior.
Behavior
The portion of an organism's interaction with its environment.
Behavioral
Behavior must be THE behavior that needs improvement, behavior must be measurable, "whose" behavior has changed
Behaviorism
Philosophy of the science of behavior.
Conceptually systematic
Derived from the principles of behavior
Dependent Variable
The variable measured to determine if it changes as a result if manipulating the IV
Determinism
The universe is a lawful and orderly place, phenomena occur in relation to other events and not in accidental fashion.
Discriminated Operant
An operant that occurs more frequently under some antecedent conditions than under others
Discriminated stimulus
Stimulus in the presence of which responses of some type have been reinforced and in the absence of which the same type of responses have not been reinforced.
Effective
Must produce behavior changes that are socially significant
Empiricism
The objective observation of the phenomena of interest.
Experiment Comparison
A comparison of some measure of the DV under 2 or more different conditions in which one factor at a time (IV) differs from one condition to another.
Functional relation manipulating
Establishing a consistent effect on the DV by manipulating the IV, unlikely to be a result of extraneous variables.
Generality
Lasts over time, appears in different environments, behaviors change that were not the target behavior
Methodological behaviorism
A philosophic position that views behavioral events that cannot be publicly observed outside the realm of science.
Ontogeny
The history of the development of an individual organism during its lifetime.
Operant behavior
Any behavior whose future frequency is determined by its history of consequences.
Operant conditioning
The process by which operant learning occurs
Parsimony
Practice of ruling out simple, logical explanations before considering more complex explanations
Philosophic doubt
Continuous questioning of what is known as fact
Phyolgeny
The history of the natural evolution of a species
Radical behaviorism
A form of behaviorism that attempts to understand all human behavior including private and public events.
Respondent behavior
The response component of a reflex.
Science
A systematic approach to understanding of natural phenomena
Skinner's first book
Behavior of the organism
Stimulus
An energy change that affects an organism through its receptor cells.
Stimulus control
When the rate, latency, duration, or amplitude of a behavior is altered by the presence or absence of an antecedent stimulus.
Technological
Procedures are described in detail so that anyone can replicate it with same results
abative effect
A decrease in the current frequency of behavior that has been reinforced by the stimulus that is increased in reinforcing effectiveness by the same motivating operation.
abolishing operation
A motivating operation that decreases the reinforcing effectiveness of a stimulus, object, or event.
behavior-altering effect
An alteration in the current frequency of behavior that has been reinforced by the stimulus that is altered in effectiveness by the same motivating operation.
conditioned motivating operation
A motivating operation whose value-altering effect depends on a learning history.
discriminative stimulus related to punishment
A stimulus in the presence of which responses of some type have been reinforced and in the absence of which the same type of responses have occurred and not been reinforced.
establishing operation
A motivating operation that establishes (increases) the effectiveness of some stimulus, object, or event as a reinforcer.
function-altering effect
A relatively permanent change in an organism's repertoire of MO, stimulus, and response relations, caused by reinforcement, punishment, an extinction procedure, or a recovery from punishment procedure.
motivating operation
An environmental variable that (a) alters (increases or decreases) the reinforcing effectiveness of some stimulus, object, or event; and (b) alters (increases or decreases) the current frequency of all behavior that have been reinforced by that stimulus, object, or event.
recovery from punishment procedure
The occurrence of a previously punished type of response without its punishment procedure. This rocedure is analogous to the extinction of previously reinforced behavior and has the effect of undoing the effect of the punishment.
reflexive conditioned motivating operation
A stimulus that acquires MO effectiveness by preceding some form of worsening or improvement. It is exemplified by the warning stimulus in a typical escape-avoidance procedure, which establishes its own offset as reinforcement and evokes all behavior that has accomplished that offset.
reinforcer-abolishing effect
A decrease in the reinforcing effectiveness of a stimulus, object, or event caused by a motivating operation.
reinforcer-establishing effect
An increase in the reinforcing effectiveness of a stimulus, object, or event caused by a motivating operation.
surrogate conditioned motivating operation
A stimulus that acquires its MO effectiveness by being paired with another MO and has the same value-altering and behavior-altering effects as the MO with which it was paired.
transitive conditioned motivating operation
An environmental variable that, as a result of a learning history, establishes (or abolishes) the reinforcing effectiveness of another stimulus and evokes (or abates) the behavior that has been reinforced by that other stimulus.
unconditioned motivating operation
A motivating operation whose value-altering effect does not depend on a learning history.
unpairing
Two kinds: (a) the occurrence alone of a stimulus that acquired its function by being paired with an already effective stimulus, or (b) the occurrence of the stimulus in the absence as well as in the presence of the effective stimulus.
value-altering effect
An alteration in the reinforcing effectiveness of a stimulus, object, or event as a result of a motivating operation.
artifact
an outcome or result that appears to exist because of the way it is measured but in fct does not correspond to what actually occurred
Topography
The physical form or shape of behavior
Total-task training
Learner receives training on each behavior in chain during each session.
Trials-to criterion
Number of responses for a person to achieve a pre-established level of accuracy or proficiency
Unconditioned negative reinforcer
A stimulus that functions as a negative reinforcers a result of the evolutionary development of the species (phylogeny); no prior learning is involved (e.g., shock, loud noise, intense light, extreme pressures against the body)".
Unconditioned punisher
A stimulus change that decreases the frequency of any behavior that immediately precedes it irrespective of the organism's learning history with the stimulus.
Unconditioned reinforcer
Stimulus change that INCREASES the frequency of behavior that precedes it irrespective of learning history
Unconditioned reinforcer
A stimulus change that increases the frequency of any behavior that immediately precedes it irrespective of the organism's learning history with the stimulus.
Unconditioned stimulus
The stimulus component of an unconditioned reflex; a stimulus change that elicits respondent behavior without any prior learning.
Variable interval (VI)
Schedule of reinforcement that produces reinforcement for the first correct response following the elapse of variable durations of time occurring in a random or unpredictable order.
Variable ratio
Schedule of reinforcement requiring a varying number of responses for reinforcement.
Whole interval recording
Time sampling method in which observation is divided into series of brief time intervals, behavior must occur during entire interval.
celeration
the change (acceleration or deceleration) in rate of responding over time
celeration time period
a unit of time (e.g., per week, per month) in which celeration is plotted on a Standard Celeration Chart
celeration trend line
this is measured as a factor by which rate multiplies or divides across the celeration time periods
count
a simple tally of the number of occurrences of a behavior
discrete trial
any operant whose response rate is controlled by a given opportunity to emit the response
duration
a measure of the total extent of time in which a behavior occurs
event recording
measurement procedure for obtaining a tally or count of the number of times a behavior occurs
free operant
can be emitted at nearly any time; is discrete, it requires minimal time for completion, and it can produce a wide range of response rates
free operant
any operant behavior that results in minimal displacement of the participant in time and space
frequency
a ratio of count per observation time
interresponse time (IRT)
the elapsed time between two successive responses
interresponse time and response latency
2 measures of temporal locus
magnitude
the force or intensity with which a response is emitted
measurement by permanent product
a method of measuring behavior after it has occurred by recording the effects that the behavior produced on the environment
momentary time sampling
a measurement method in which the presence or absence of behaviors are recorded at precisely specified time intervals
observation period
this should always be noted when reporting count measures
partial-interval recording
a time sampling method in which the observer records whether the target behavior occurred at any time during the interval
percentage
a ratio formed by combining the same dimensional quantities
planned activity check (PLACHECK)
a variation of momentary time sampling in which the observer records whether each person in a group is engaged in the target behavior at specific points in time; provides a measure of "group behavior"
rate
a ratio of count per observation time
repeatability
refers to the fact that a behavior can occur repeatedly through time
repeatability, temporal extent, temporal locus
the three fundamental properties, or dimensional quantities, that behavior analysts can measure
response latency
the elapsed time from the onset of a stimulus (e.g., task direction, cue) to the initiation of a response
temporal extent
refers tot he fact that every instance of behavior occurs during some amount of time
temporal locus
refers to the fact that every instance of behavior occurs at a certain point in time with respect to other events
time sampling
a measurement of the presence or absence of behavior within specific time intervals
time sampling
a method of measurement that is most useful with continuous and high-rate behaviors
topography
the physical form or shape of a behavior
trials-to-criterion
a special form of event recording; a measure of the number of responses or practice opportunities needed for a person to achieve a pre-established level of accuracy or proficiency
whole-interval recording
a time-sampling method in which the observer records whether the target behavior occurred throughout the entire interval
3 Levels of knowledge/instruction
Description, Prediction, Control
7 Attitudes of Science
Determinism, Empiricism, Experimentation, Replication, Philosophical Doubt, Parsimony
7 dimensions of ABA
Applied, Behavioral, Analytic, Technological, Conceptually Systematic, Effective, General
ABA
The science in which tactics derived from the basic principles of behavior are systematically applied to improve socially significant behavior and experimentation is used to identify the variables responsible for behavior change.
Analytic
Demonstrates a functional relation (ind variable was the variable responsible for the change) (ind is the intervention)
Antecedent
Stimulus that precedes the behavior
Applied
The behavior under study is one of social significance
Arbitrary stimulus class
Stimuli that are not physically similar but evoke the same response. dogs, monkeys,cats - animals apples, pears, bananas - fruit
Behavior
The behavior of an organism is that portion of an organisms interaction with its environment that is characterized by detectable displacement in space through time of some par tof the oraganism and that results in measurable change in at least one aspect of the environment
Behavior
Refers to a large set or class of responses. Can be described by structure (response topography) or by function (effect on environment)
Behavior Change Tactic
Methodology employed that is derived from one of the principles of behavior (how we use the principle)
Behavioral
Behavior that can be observed and measured
Behaviorism
Philosophy of the science of behavior. Watson (1900) observed relationship between environment and response. Behavior can be explained by observable phenomenon. S-R paradigm
Birth of ABA
Watson - Behaviorism, Skinner - EAB - ABA
Conceptually Systematic
Procedures are derived from the basic principles of behavior (avoid having a bag of tricks)Control: Highest level of understanding. Functional relationship
Description
Gathering facts that can be classified and examined
Determinism
Universe is lawful. Phenomena occur as a result of other events. Actions can be accounted for in observable events.
displacement through space and time
where a stimulus occurs (how we measure behavior
DRA
(alternative) a procedure for decreasing problem behavior in which reinforcement is delivered for a behavior that serves as a desirable alternative to the behavior targeted for reduction and withheld following instances of the problem behavior
DRO
(other) a procedure for decreasing problem behavior in which reinforcement is contigent on the abscence of the problem behavior during or at specific times.
EAB
Experimental Analysis of Behavior (Basic Research done in the lab) Distinguished respondent behavior from operant behavior. Behavior is voluntary and not elicited by antecedent stimulus. Behavior change is a result of stimuli that follow it R-S. 3 term contingency (operant behavior S-R-S)
Effective
Results are large enough for practical value. self injury reduced by 50% is great but not particularly effective if it still occurs 500 times a day.
Empiricism
Objective observation of the phenomena of interest
Environment
The conglomerate of real circumstances in which the organism or reference part of the organism exists (everything around us)
Experimentation
manipulation of the independent variable to produce a change in the dependent variable.
Extinction
"life goes on". The discontinuing of reinforcement of a previously reinforced behavior
Feature stimulus class
Share common physical properties. dogs- goldens, labs, terriers. red apples - mcintosh, gala, empire
Function
The effect of the response on the environment. pressing lever results in delivery of food
General
Behavior change is durable across time, settings, people, materials.
Mentalism
mental or inner dimensions explain behavior
Methodological Behaviorism
Acknowledges private events but does not consider them in the analysis of behavior. Does employ scientific manipulation.
Negative Punishment
removal of a stimulus following a behavior that leads to a future decrease of the behavior. planned ignoring
Negative reinforcement
Stimulus is removed following the occurrence of the behavior that lead to a future increase of that behavior.
Parsimony
consider the simplest answer first. the simplest gets ruled out before more complex or abstract ones are considered.
Philosophical Doubt
question truthfulness
Positive Punishment
presentation of a stimulus following the behavior that leads to a future decrease of behavior
Positive Reinforcement
Stimulus presented following the occurrence of the behavior that leads to a future increase in the behavior
Prediction
2 events that seem to have a relationship (correlation)
Premack Principle
making the opportunity to engage in a high probability behavior contingent upon engagement in a low probability behavior. The high frequency behavior will serve as reinforcement for the low frequency behavior.
Prompt
An added antecedent stimulus that occasions the behavior
Purpose of science
To achieve understanding of the phenomena under study without regard to personal, group, or institutional bias.
Repeatability
Frequency of behavior over time
Replication
repeating of experiments to determine reliability
Response class
Group of responses of varying topography (physical characteristics) all of which produce the same effect on the environment. Same function but different topographies. there are many ways to press a lever but all response result in delivery of food.
Response topography
the form or physical characteristics if the behavior. physical movements the rat uses to press the lever
Response
Refers to a specific instance of behavior
Skinner
1930 wrote Behavior of Organisms.
EAB-ABA Radical Behaviorism
which states that principles of behavior can explain all human behavior including private events in terms of controlling variables in the history of the person and species.
Stimulus
An energy change that affects an organism through its receptor cells. We process stimuls chagnes through exteroceptors - sense organs, interoceptors - inside us/inside organs, proprioceptors - sense of balance
Stimulus class
set of stimuli that share common properties. set of stimuli that evoke the same response. Stimulus events can be described as: Formally - by physical features - size, weight, color. Temporally - when they occur with respect to a behavior + ant/cons. Funtionally - by their effect on the environment - what impact it had on the behavior.
Structuralism
Relies in descriptions of behavior. Does not employ scientific manipulations.
Technological
Procedures are so clearly described that they can be replicated
Temporal Extent
Duration of a behavioral event
Temporal Locus
When in time a behavior occurs
Verbal Operants
Mand - request, Tact - label, Echoic - you say "cup" I say "cup", Intraverbal - no point to point correspondence - twinkle, twinkle little ______, Textual - reading the word "cup", Transcript - hearing the word "cup" and writing the word "cup"
ABA Reversal
A basic single-subject design in which baseline measurements (A) are contrasted with measurements during treatment (B) across conditions which alternate to determine causal effects.
adjunctive behavior
Excessive (possibly arbitrary) behaviors that occur between trials or between reinforcers.
analytical pragmatism
A set of principles and philosophies that reflect a commitment to practical, behavioral methods of assessment and analysis.
appetitive stimulus
A positively reinforcing stimulus.
applied behavior analysis
The use of basic behavior principles to analyze and solve practical problems.
aversion therapy
A Pavlovian procedure in which stimuli that elicit inappropriate behaviors are paired with an aversive stimulus (shock, emetics, ammonia) to produce strong conditioned responses (nausea, fear, etc). Used to treat child molestation, alcohol abuse, etc.
aversive stimulus
A noxious or unpleasant stimulus.
backward chaining
A method used to train chained performances in which the last behavior in the chain is trained first; then each preceding behavior is gradually introduced.
baseline
The base rate of behavior, before intervention, against which the efficacy of experimental manipulations is compared.
behavior analysis
A comprehensive experimental approach to the study of behavior with the objective of investigating, identifying, describing,and using the general principles and laws which govern behavior.
behavior trapping
Teaching of a new behavior that becomes trapped (or maintained) through natural contingencies of reinforcement.
behavioral medicine
A behavior change program that targets health-related activities such as patient compliance, taking medicines, exercise regimens, etc.
behavioral repertoire
The full set of behaviors that an organism does. Everything that an organism does, including both overt and covert actions, like thinking.
belongingness
The idea that a subject's evolutionary history causes some responses and relationships to be more easily learned.
changing criterion
A research design in which the rate of the target response is progressively changed (up or down). Used when the final level of the target response is radically different from baseline and likely to resist change (Example: smoking).
classical conditioning
A procedure in which a neutral stimulus (NS) comes to elicit a conditioned response (CR) as a result of being paired with an unconditioned stimulus (UCS).
compound stimulus
A stimulus that is composed of several components.
concurrent behavioral contingency
More than one contingency of reinforcement is in effect at the same time.
conditioned emotional response
Suppression of a positively reinforced operant response by the presentation of a stimulus that has previously been classically conditioned with an aversive stimulus.
conditioned reinforcer
A stimulus that has acquired reinforcing properties through its association with other reinforcing stimuli.
constructional approach to behavior change
A training system that focuses on skill-building to teach individual requisite skills needed for appropriate behaviors that can later be substituted for inappropriate behaviors.
context of behavior
The biological and experiential history of the organism combined with the contextual stimuli that are present when conditioning occurs.
contingency trap
Unwanted behavior by the subject occurs frequently because it is reinforced through negative attention while temporary relief from the unwanted behavior reinforces the experimenter's use of negative attention.
contingency-shaped behavior
Operant behavior which is directly under the control of the contingencies, as opposed to rule-governed behavior.
continuous reinforcement
A reinforcement schedule in which every response is reinforced.
correspondence training
A training method which focuses on teaching subjects to have a high correlation between a verbal commitment (Say) and the actual behavior (Do).
dependent variable
What is measured in an experiment - in behavior analysis, it is always the behavior of the subject.
deprivation
The procedure of restricting or limiting access to a reinforcing event or stimulus.
differential reinforcement of high rates
A particular reinforcement schedule in which reinforcement is delivered for rates of responding above a specified criterion.
differential reinforcement of incompatible behaviors
A particular reinforcement schedule in which reinforcement is delivered for behaviors which are incompatible with the target response.
differential reinforcement of low rates
A particular reinforcement schedule in which reinforcement is delivered for rates of responding below a specified criterion.
differential reinforcement of other behaviors
A particular reinforcement schedule in which reinforcement is delivered for behaviors other than the target response.
discrete trials procedure
Isolating and teaching a specific task to an individual by repeatedly presenting the task to the individual across various trials. Responses are recorded for each trial and each successful response is usually reinforced.
discrimination
A form of stimulus control in which the subject responds differentially to stimuli that share share too few relevant features.
displacement behavior
Behavior which is irrelevant, incongruous or out of context which arises when consummatory behaviors are interrupted or prevented.
echolalia
A symptom of autism in which the child ONLY repeats spoken language (echoic in nature) and fails to exhibit normal verbal behaviors.
errorless discrimination training
A discrimination procedure in which the initial training involves only a brief, low intensity presentation of S-. Gradually, the intensity and duration of the S- is increased. Subjects rarely (if ever) respond to S-.
establishing operation
Any change in the environment which alters the effectiveness of a stimulus to serve as a reinforcer and increases the probability of responses that have previously produced that stimulus - (i.e. food deprivation).
experimental analysis of behavior
A single-subject method of investigation in which complex environment-behavior relations are systematically broken down into simpler component relations which reveal basic principles and controlling variables.
extinction
The reduction in frequency of an operant response which was previously rewarded that results when the response is no longer followed by the reinforcer.
extinction burst
A rapid burst of target responses that occur which extinction is first applied.
extrinsic reinforcers
Reinforcers that are arranged artificially by the experimenter, teacher or parent, and which would not naturally occur.
fading
A procedure in which a stimulus is gradually increased or decreased in intensity. Can be used to transfer control from one stimulus to another.
fear hierarchy
The graduate set of feared objects, activities, or events that are constructed by a client and therapist to treat phobic responses using systematic desensitization.
flooding
The presentation of feared objects, activites or events, often at full strength, in a manner that prevents escape or avoidance. Often an alternative to systematic desensitization.
fluency training
The use of a changing criterion design to gradually increase the speed and accuracy of behavior (i.e. math fluency, foreign language fluency, etc.).
forward chaining
A method used to train chained performances in which the first behavior in the chain is trained first; then each subsequent behavior is gradually introduced.
functional behavior analysis
An thorough analysis of pretreatment behavior in terms of the antecedents and consequence associated with target behaviors. Is used to identify the function or purpose of the target behavior.
generalized reinforcer
A specialized form of conditioned reinforcer which is backed up by a variety of primary reinforcers (i.e. money).
habit reversal
A procedure in which the subject is required to engage in an incompatible response in order to eliminate unwanted behaviors. Used to reduce nervous muscle responses and tics.
habituation
A decrease in responsiveness that comes as a result of repeated stimulation.
hypothetical constructs
Nonobservable postulated events that are presumed to explain behavior but which become problematic because they are not directly observed, and are inferred from the behavior which they are purported to cause.
in vitro desensitization
The use of imaginal activities as part of the fear heirarchy in the treatment of phobias.
in vivo desensitization
Treatment for phobias which involve actually engaging in the feared responses or activities.
independent variable
What is manipulated by the experimenter. In behavior analysis, the IV is typically the arrangement of events which precede or follow a response (establishing operations, stimulus control, and/or consequences).
intermittent reinforcement
A reinforcement schedule in which responding is reinforced only some of the time.
interresponse time
Interval between successive responses.
intertrial interval
The time that elapses between two successive trials in an experiment.
intrinsic reinforcers
Reinforcers that are the natural outcome of the target behavior. (i.e. social rewards of engaging in verbal behavior with others)
Keller's personalized system of instruction
A college teaching method based on principles of operant conditioning in which courses are arranged such that students move through the material at their own speed and are reinforced for completing small course units.
law of effect
A fundamental prinple of behavior that states that the effects of our actions determine whether we will repeat them.
learned helplessness effect
Interference with the learning of a new instrumental response as a result of inescapable and unavoidable aversive stimulation.
learning
An relatively enduring change in behavior that results from an interaction with the environment.
learning curve
Graph showing how behavior changes during the course of an experiment.
mainstreaming
Placement of developmentally disabled, learning disabled, and language-delayed students in regular classes.multiple baseline across behaviors: A research design in which the same reinforcement procedure is applied progressively to several operants. Subject, setting and consequences remain the same while different responses are modified sequentially. Demonstrates reinforcer efficacy.
multiple baseline across stimulus conditions
A research design in which a reinforcement procedure is applied in one setting but withheld in other settings. Once behavior changes in the first setting, the procedure is then applied to the same response in another setting. Trains generalization.
multiple baseline across subjects
A research design in which a reinforcement procedure is progressively introduced across different individuals who exhibit similar target behaviors. Demonstrates generality of treatment & external validity.
negative reinforcement
A principle of behavior in which behavior increases as a result of the termination an aversive event or stimulus.
negatively accelerating
A learning curve in which performance is increasing at a slower and slower rate.
negatively decelerating
A learning curve in which performance is decreasing at a slower and slower rate.
observer drift
gradual increases or decreases in an observer's likelihood to identify a given behavior; reduces DV accuracy.
operant conditioning
A conditioning process in which an antecedent stimulus comes to occasion a target response as a result of pairing with a particular outcome or consequence.
overcorrection
Subjects are repeatedly required to engage in appropriate, correcting and incompatible behaviors.
partial-reinforcement extinction effect
A term used to describe greater persistence in instrumental responding during extinction
passive avoidance
Refraining from action which minimizes contact with the aversive stimulus.
performance contract
A written rule or statement describing the target behavior, the occasions when the target response should (should not) occur and the outcome for that behavior.
pivotal response training
Teaching behaviors that are central to wide areas of functioning and whose mastery leads to improvements in a larger number of behaviors (e.g. language, fine motor skills, naming, following directions, etc..)
positive reinforcement
A principle of behavior in which behavior increases as a result of the presentation of an appetitive stimulus.
positively accelerating
A learning curve in which performance is increasing at a faster and faster rate.
positively decelerating
A learning curve in which performance is decreasing at a faster and faster rate.
Premack principle
According to this principle, you can increase the strength or likelihood of a target response if you make the opportunity to perform a more preferred response contingent upon performance of the target response.
private behavior
Behavior which is only accessible to the individual who emits it (i.e. thinking)
prompting
The explicit training of a supplemental stimulus (SD) that increases the probability of a response. Used to establish stimulus control. Usually it is faded out replaced by naturally occurring SDs.
reinforcer
A stimulus (or event) whose availability shortly following the target response increases the future likelihood of that response.
response blocking
Physically intervening to prevent the completion of the response as soon as the person begins to emit the problem behavior.
response chain
A consecutively ordered series of responses in which each response produces a cue for the next response in the sequence.
response class
A class of related behaviors that functionally produce the same consequences. (e.g. "please open the door" and opening the door both produce an open door).
response cost
A principle of behavior in which behavior decreases as a result of the removal of an actual appetitive stimulus (e.g. parking or traffic fines).
response latency
The time elapsed between the presentation of a stimulus and the subject's response. This is often used as a dependent variable.
response-reinforcer contingency
A relationship in which a consequence (reinforcer) is delivered if and only if the target response occurs.
rule-governed behavior
Instructed behavior or behavior which conforms to a previous learned (verbal) rule.
satiation
Repeated presentation of a stimulus can reduce its efficacy as a reinforcer - can be used as a treatment strategy.
schedule thinning
Gradually increasing the requirements to earn a reinforcer: increases the response requirement in terms of number of responses or delays to reinforcement.
SD
A discriminative stimulus that evokes instrumental behavior because it signals the availability of reinforcement for a target response.
self -injurious behavior
Abnormal behaviors that are harmful to oneself, such as head- banging or scratching or biting oneself.
self-control
Foregoing an immediate, small reward for a larger, more delayed reward.
self-stimulation
Abnormal, repetitive behaviors that interfere with the individual's ability to pay attention or participate in meaningful activity, spinning objects.
shaping
Reinforcing successive approximations to the required (target) response.
social skills training
A technique used to teach skills that allow the child to be successful at interacting and developing social relationships with peers, family, and other adults.
social validity
The goals, procedures and results of an intervention are acceptable to the client, the behavior analyst and to society.
stimulus control
The ability of a particular stimulus to elicit or occasion a target response.
stimulus generalization
The occurrence of a behavior, learned in the presence of one stimulus, that is emitted in response to other similar (novel) stimuli.
superstitious behavior
Behavior which increases in frequency as a result of accidental (coincidental) pairing of an appetite stimulus and the occurrence of a particular behavior.
S∆
A discriminative stimulus that suppresses instrumental responding because it signals that reinforcement is not available.
task analysis
The process of breaking a skill down into smaller steps to be taught individually.
time-out
Removal of the opportunity to earn or obtain positive reinforcement.
token economy
A reinforcement system in which tokens are delivered contingent upon specified target behaviors. Tokens can be exchanged for goods, services, privileges and/or other backup reinforcers. Effective in classrooms, nursing homes, in-patient facilities, etc..
vicarious conditioning
Change in the performance of one learner based on observation of the consequences of another learner's behavior.
A rule governed behavior is always
an indirect acting contingency
Advantages of molar systems
it simplifies staff training provides systematic rather than arbitrary guidelines for decisions regarding the individuals behavior molar system can offset the individual differences that control decisions regarding the persons behavior.
an improbable delayed outcome
you will get sick if you don't wash your hands.
Conditioned aversive stimuli
Those that are paired or associated with unconditioned aversive stimuli and acquire their properties.
Contingency Contracting
also known as behavioral contracting refers to either the negotiated goals and procedures of a behavior analysis program or to a document that specifies a contingent relationship between teh completion of a specified behavior and access to or delivery of a specified reward.
Delayed outcomes that are associated with control of behavior have
: a high likelihood of occurring
Direct Acting Contingencies
Are effective immediate and rule governed behavior is not involved
Direct Instruction
precision teaching is an instructional method that involves using a prepared curriculum and very specific behavioral techniques.
Discrete Trials
an instructional method in which a teacher sequentially presents a discriminative stimulus and provides a consequence for the response for a number of trials "good" and edible if correct No that's wrong if incorrect usually data are collected on whether or not the response was correct a variation uses prompting and fading procedures if the student does not respond or responds incorrectly.
Discrimination training
differentially reinforcing one behavior in the presence of one stimulus while either in the absence of the stimulus or in the presence of another stimulus, that same behavior is either placed on extinction punished reinforced on a leaner schedule or is the target behavior in a DRO, and/or a different behavior is reinforced.
During Mand training after continuous errors or no responses
you try a different reinfocer, re evaluate the EO or try again later
Effectiveness of Modeling
similarity of person modeling to person etc models prestige and physical attractiveness emphasizing critical aspects of the modeled stimuli whether it is reinforced imitators attention to the model the difficulty of the modeled behavior.
Fading
a technique to gradually transfer stimulus control from prompts to other SD's
For example
...
Imitation training
is appropriate when a person does not imitate modeled behavior.
Indirect Acting Contingencies
effective delayed
Instruction
may be more effective when combined with other procedures such as modeling, prompting and rehearsal.
Instructions
Variables influencing the effectiveness of instructions include whether the person's repertoire includes behavior under instructional control or whether rule governance needs to be developed whether the verbal stimuli are props or the actual discriminative stimuli of concern, and the rates at which instruction are presented.
Instructions
Verbal antecedent stimuli which many times are efficient ways to evoke new behavior. They can be oral or written
Intraverbals
Are controlled by Verbal stimuli
Matching law
the allocation of responses to choices available on concurrent schedules of reinforcement rates of the responding across choices are distributed in proportions that match the rates of reinforcement received from each choice alternative
Modeling
more effective when combined with other procedures such as instructions, prompting, rehearsal and verbal feedback/reinforcement
Modeling
antecedent stimuli that are topographically similar to the target imitative behaviors. Presenting a model that sets the occasion for the imitative response which is then reinforced
Molar System
appropriate to use molar system when there are multiple behavior change targets...When the system will be implemented with a behaviorally similar population. when similar target environments exist across the target population when the target populations behavior is controlled or somewhat delayed or mediated
Prompting
Prompts are supplementary antecedent stimuli used to evoke a response in the presence of the SD that eventually will control the target behavior. Movement cues position cues and redundancy cues are used as prompts
prompts may also be used to
evoke a low probability behavior to evoked a chain of behavior by prompting the first step (response priming) and to prompt behaviors incompatible with an inappropriate behavior
PSI
Personalized system of instruction also known as the Keller plan is a method of teaching based on the principles of behavior and characterized by going at your own pace the use of proctors and other features
reflexivity
when in the absence of training and reinforcement a response will select a stimulus that is matched to itself A=A EX participant shown a picture of a bike and then presented three cards picks the picture of the bike
Rule breaking is
an establishing operation that establishes rule breaking as and aversive motivating condition.
Self Control strategies
the design arrangement and implementation of behavior change procedures that include behaviors of the person whose behavior is targeted for change that are likely to suppress unwanted behavior and/or evoke or reinforce desired behavior.
Shaping
Differential reinforcement of successive approximations....can be done across or within response topographies The efficiency of shaping can be increased by using discriminative stimuli such as prompts.
Stimulus equivalence
testing for reflexivity, symmetry and transitivity among stimulus
Symmetry
with the reversibility of the sample stimulus and comparison stimulus A=B then B=A presented with the spoken word car to select a comparison picture of a care (comparison B) without additional training ore reinforcement the learner selects the comparison spoken word Car (comparison A)
Transitivity
The final and critical test for stimulus equivalence is derived from stimulus-stimulus relations A=B and B=C A Spoken word bike B picture of a bike B picture of a bike C written word of Bike.
Types of Fading
Most to least prompts (fading out) least to most prompting (fading in) graduated guidance time delay stimulus fading and stimulus shaping
Types of Prompts
Verbal Gestural modeling tactual or physical
Analytic
Demonstrate a functional relation
Antecedent
Environmental conditions or stimulus changes that occur prior to the behavior of interest
Antecedent stimulus class
Stimuli that share a common relationship
Applied Behavioral Analysis
The science in which tactics derived from the principles of behavior are applied to improve socially significant behavior and experimentation is used to identify the variables responsible for the improvement of the behavior.
Automatic reinforcement
Reinforcement that occurs independent of the social mediation of others
Automaticity of reinforcement
Behavior is modified by it's consequences regardless of whether the individual is aware of reinforcement
Aversive stimulus
Stimulus conditions whose termination functions as reinforcement
Avoidance Contingency
A contingency in which a response prevents or postpones the presentation of a stimulus
Backup Reinforcer
Reinforcers that can be purchased with tokens
Backward chaining
A teaching procedure in which all behaviors are initially completed by the trainer except for the final behavior in the chain.
Behavior
The portion of an organism's interaction with its environment
Behavior chain
Specific sequence of responses in which each response produces a stimulus change that functions as conditioned reinforcement for that response and an Sd for the next response.
Behavior chain with limited hold
A sequence of behaviors that must be performed correctly and within a specified time to be reinforced.
Behavioral contract
A document that specifies a contingent relationship between the completion of a specified behavior and access to a reinforcer.
Behavioral cusp
A behavior that has sudden and dramatic consequences that extend beyond the change because it exposes the person to new environments, reinforcers, contingencies, responses and stimulus control
Behaviorism
Philosophy of the science of behavior
Concept Formulation
Stimulus control that requires both stimulus generalization within a class of stimuli and discrimination between classes of stimuli
Conditioned reinforcer
A stimulus change that functions as a reinforcer because of prior pairing with one or more other reinforcers
Conditioned stimulus
Stimulus component of a conditioned reflex
Consequence
Stimulus change that follows a behavior of interest
Contingency
Dependent and/or temporal relations between operant behaviors and its controlling variables
Contingent observation
Person is put in time out within setting so they can see ongoing activities but access to reinforcers is lost
Continuous measurement
of the response classes of interest are detected during observation period