Chapter 1 Vocabulary and Concepts

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Evolution
descent with modification; the idea that living species are the descendants of ancestral species that were different from the present-day ones; the change in the genetic composition of a population
Biology
the scientific study of life
Emergent Properties
new properties that arise with each step upward in the hierarchy of life, owing to the arrangement and interactions of parts as complexity increases
Systems Biology
an approach to studying biology that aims to model the dynamic behavior of whole biological systems based on a study of the interactions among the system's parts
Global Climate Change
Increase in temperature and change in weather patterns all around the planet, due mostly to increasing atmospheric CO2 levels from the burning of fossil fuels. The increase in temperature is a major aspect of global climate change
Eukaryotic Cells
a type of cell with a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles
Prokaryotic Cells
a type of cell lacking a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles
DNA
a double-stranded helical nucleic acid molecule,consisting of nucleotide monomers with a deoxyribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T); capable of being replicated and determining the inherited structure of a cell's proteins
Genes
a discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA in some viruses)
Gene Expression
the process by which information encoded in DNA directs the synthesis of proteins or, in some cases, RNAs that are not translated into proteins and instead function as RNAs
Genome
the genetic material of an organism or virus; the complete complement of an organism's or virus's genes along with its noncoding nucleic acid sequences
Genomics
the study of whole sets of genes and their interactions within a species, as well as genome comparisons between species
Bioinformatics
the use of computers, software, and mathematical models to process and integrate biological information from large data sets
Negative Feedback
a form of regulation in which accumulation of an end product of a process slows the process; in physiology, a primary mechanism of homeostasis whereby a change in a variable triggers a response that counteracts initial change
Positive Feedback
a form of regulation in which an end product of a process speeds up that process; in physiology, a control mechanism in which a change in a variable triggers a response that reinforces or amplifies the change
Bacteria
one of two prokaryotic domains, the other being Archaea
Archaea
one of two prokaryotic domains, the other being Bacteria
Eukarya
the domain that includes all eukaryotic organisms
Natural Selection
a process in which individuals that have certain inherited traits tend to survive and reproduce at higher rates than other individuals because of those traits
Science
an approach to understanding the natural world
Inquiry
the search for information and explanation, often focusing on specific questions
Data
recorded observation
Inductive Reasoning
a type of logic in which generalizations are based on a large number of specific observations
Hypothesis
a testable explanation for a set of observations based on the available data and guided by inductive reasoning
Deductive Reasoning
a type of logic in which specific results are predicted from a general premise
Controlled Reasoning
an experiment in which an experimental group is compared with a control group that varies only in the factor being tested
Theory
an explanation that is broader in scope than a hypothesis, generates new hypotheses, and is supported by a large body of evidence
Model Organism
a particular species chosen for research into broad biological principles because it is representative of a larger group and usually easy to grow in a lab
Technology
the application of scientific knowledge for a specific purpose, often involving industry or commerce but also including uses in basic research
Eukaryotic Cell
an approach to studying biology that aims to model the dynamic behavior of whole biological systems based on a study of the interactions among the system's parts a type of cell with membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles.
Prokaryotic Cell
a type of cell lacking a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles. Organisms with prokaryotic cells (bacteria and archaea) are called prokaryotes
Population
A localized group of organisms that belong to the same species is called a
the potential energy of chemical bonds
Organisms interact with their environments, exchanging matter and energy. For example, plant chloroplasts convert the energy of sunlight into
light energy
The main source of energy for producers in an ecosystem is
archaea
Which of the following types of cells utilize deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) as their genetic material but do not have their DNA encased within a nuclear envelope?
reductionism
To understand the chemical basis of inheritance, we must understand the molecular structure of DNA. This is an example of the application of which concept to the study of biology?
positive feedback
Once labor begins in childbirth, contractions increase in intensity and frequency until delivery. The increasing labor contractions of childbirth are an example of which type of regulation?
negative feedback
When the body's blood glucose level rises, the pancreas secretes insulin and, as a result, the blood glucose level declines. When the blood glucose level is low, the pancreas secretes glucagon and, as a result, the blood glucose level rises. Such regulation of the blood glucose level is the result of
taxonomy
Which branch of biology is concerned with the naming and classifying of organisms?
ribosomes
Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells generally have which of the following features in common?
Bacteria and Archaea
Prokaryotes are classified as belonging to two different domains. What are the domains?
Limit the burning of fossil fuels and regulate our loss of forested areas
Global warming, as demonstrated by observations such as melting of glaciers, increasing CO2 levels, and increasing average ambient temperatures, has already had many effects on living organisms. Which of the following might best offer a solution to this problem?
Archaea
A water sample from a hot thermal vent contained a single-celled organism that had a cell wall but lacked a nucleus. What is its most likely classification?
domain Eukarya, kingdom Fungi
A filamentous organism has been isolated from decomposing organic matter. This organism has a cell wall but no chloroplasts. How would you classify this organism?
near universality of the genetic code
Which of these provides evidence of the common ancestry of all life?
It requires genetic variation, results in descent with modification, and involves differential reproductive success
Which of the following is (are) true of natural selection?
inheritable traits that enhance their survival and reproductive success in the local environment
Charles Darwin proposed a mechanism for descent with modification that stated that organisms of a particular species are adapted to their environment when they possess
an organism that dies after five days of life but leaves 10 offspring, all of whom survive to reproduce
Which of these individuals is likely to be most successful in an evolutionary sense?
gradually decline
In a hypothetical world, every 50 years people over 6 feet tall are eliminated from the population before they reproduce. Based on your knowledge of natural selection, you would predict that the average height of the human population will
natural selection
Through time, the lineage that led to modern whales shows a change from four-limbed land animals to aquatic animals with two limbs that function as flippers. This change is best explained by
All eukarya belong to one domain
What is the major difference between a kingdom and a domain?
The book was widely discussed and disseminated
Which of the following best describes what occurred after the publication of Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species?
He proposed the mechanism that explained how evolution takes place
Why is Darwin considered original in his thinking?
adaptive radiation
Darwin's finches, collected from the Galápagos Islands, illustrate which of the following?
species
Which of the following categories of organisms is least likely to be revised?
absorbing dissolved nutrients
What is the major distinguishing characteristic of fungi?
Prokaryotes characterized as extremophiles that share some bacterial and some eukaryotic traits
What are archaea?
the individuals within a population that have the greatest reproductive success
According to Darwinian theory, which of the following exhibits the greatest fitness for evolutionary success?
paleontology, anatomy, taxonomy, genetics, and ecology
Similarities and differences among/between life-forms over time are most efficiently recorded by scientists in which field(s) of study?
It provides a framework within which all biological investigation makes sense
Why is the theme of evolution considered to be the core theme of biology by biologists?
discovery science
The method of scientific inquiry that describes natural structures and processes as accurately as possible through careful observation and the analysis of data is known as
discovery science; inductive
Collecting data based on observation is an example of ________; analyzing this data to reach a conclusion is an example of ________ reasoning.
a prediction
When applying the process of science, which of these is tested?
there are at least two groups, one of which does not receive the experimental treatment
A controlled experiment is one in which
Without a control group, there is no basis for knowing if a particular result is due to the variable being tested
Why is it important that an experiment include a control group?
technology
The application of scientific knowledge for some specific purpose is known as
I and II
Which of the following are qualities of any good scientific hypothesis?
I. It is testable.
II. It is falsifiable.
III. It produces quantitative data.
IV. It produces results that can be replicated.
It does not represent deductive reasoning
When a hypothesis cannot be written in an "If...then" format, what does this mean?
Show all results obtained and then try to explore the reason(s) for these outliers
In presenting data that result from an experiment, a group of students show that most of their measurements fall on a straight diagonal line on their graph. However, two of their data points are "outliers" and fall far to one side of the expected relationship. What should they do?
The control group is matched with the experimental group except for the one experimental variable
Which of the following is the best description of a control for an experiment
Being found to have falsified or created data to better fit a hypothesis
Given the cooperativity of science, which of the following is most likely to result in an investigator being intellectually looked down upon by other scientists?
Hundreds of individuals of a species have been observed and all are photosynthetic; therefore, the species is photosynthetic
Which of these is an example of inductive reasoning?
III only
In a high school laboratory, which of the following constitutes an experiment?
I. learning to use a microscope by examining fixed specimens on slides
II. being able to examine swimming protists under a microscope
III. extracting pigments from plant leaves and separating the types of pigments for identification
IV. preparing root tips for examination by staining them
C
Which of the following best describes a model organism? A) It is often pictured in textbooks and easy for students to imagine.
B) It lends itself to many studies that are useful to beginning students.
C) It is well studied, easy to grow, and results are widely applicable.
D) It is small, inexpensive to raise, and lives a long time.
E) It has been chosen for study by the earliest biologists.
Robust and critical discussion between diverse groups improves scientific thinking
Why is a scientific topic best discussed by people of varying points of view, a variety of subdisciplines, and diverse cultures?
A map of a network of protein interactions within a eukaryotic cell
The illustration above most probably represents
adaptations to conserve water
What do these two plants have in common?
D
Which of the following is a correct sequence of levels in life's hierarchy, proceeding downward from an individual animal?
A) brain, organ system, nerve cell, nervous tissue
B) organ system, nervous tissue, brain
C) organism, organ system, tissue, cell, organ
D) nervous system, brain, nervous tissue, nerve cell
E) organ system, tissue, molecule, cell
A
Which of the following is not an observation or inference on which Darwin's theory of natural selection is based?
A) Poorly adapted individuals never produce offspring.
B) There is heritable variation among individuals.
C) Because of overproduction of offspring, there is competition for limited resources.
D) Individuals whose inherited characteristics best fit them to the environment will generally produce more offspring.
E) A population can become adapted to its environment over time.
understand the behavior of entire biological systems
Systems biology is mainly an attempt to
protists have a membrane-bounded nucleus, which bacterial cells lack
Protists and bacteria are grouped into different domains because
the structure and function of DNA
Which of the following best demonstrates the unity among all organisms?
tests experimental and control groups in parallel
A controlled experiment is one that
Hypotheses usually are relatively narrow in scope; theories have broad explanatory power
Which of the following statements best distinguishes hypotheses from theories in science?
The fish swam in a zigzag motion
Which of the following is an example of qualitative data?
If my hypothesis is correct, I can expect certain test results
Which of the following best describes the logic of scientific inquiry?
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