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8th Grade - Fall 2019 - Semester Test
Terms in this set (91)
The subscript in MgBr2(the 2 is a subscript) means that there are ______ magnesium atoms for every bromine atom.
Electrons involved in bonding between atoms are
_________________________ is the study of matter and how matter changes.
The only sure evidence for a chemical reaction is the production of one or more __________ substances.
CaCO3 represents a chemical
The principle of conservation of mass is true only for reactions that take place in ________________ systems.
conservation of mass
In chemical reactions, the principle of _________________________________________________________ matter is not created or destroyed.
A ___________________________ change happens when chemical bonds break and new bonds form.
A shorter, easier way to show a chemical reaction, using symbols instead of words, is called a
The substances listed on the left side of a chemical equation are the
A chemical reaction that absorbs energy in the form of heat is described as
When a chemical reaction takes place in an ____________ system, matter can enter from or escape to the surroundings.
Every chemical reaction involves a change in
Mendeleev created the first periodic table by arranging elements in order of increasing atomic ____________.
The atomic number of an element is based on the number of ______________________ in its nucleus.
From an element's location in the periodic table, you can predict its
The elements in a column of the periodic table have similar ________________________________.
In an atom, the number of protons equals the number of
The elements in a row of the periodic table have properties that change in a ____________________.
The element's _______________________ indicates the number of protons in an atom.
The parts of the atom that move around the nucleus are the
When two forces act in the same direction their strengths are ________________________.
The greater the mass of an object, the ______________________ its inertia.
The force of gravity on a person or object on the surface of a planet is called
The force that one surface exerts on another when the two rub against each other is called
The law of universal gravitation states that any two objects in the universe that have mass, without exception, __________________________ each other.
Forces can be added together only if they are acting on the ______________________ object.
before and after
According to the law of conservation of momentum, when two objects collide in the absence of outside forces, the objects have the same momentum ____________________________________ they collide.
The momentum of an object is in the same direction as its
equal and opposite
According to Newton's third law of motion, when a hammer strikes and exerts force on a nail, the nail exerts an ______________________________ force on the hammer.
In physical science, a push or a pull is called a(n)
The force between your bike tires and the road as you ride is an example of ____________ friction.
Throwing sand on an icy driveway is an example of increasing ____________ intentionally.
The force of gravity on a person or object at the surface of a planet is known as
The amount of matter in an object is called its
The force that pulls falling objects toward Earth is called
The tendency of an object to resist change in its motion is known as
The product of an object's mass and velocity is called its
You can increase the momentum of an object by ________________ its mass.
Speed equals distance divided by
When you know both the speed and direction of an object's motion, you know the _____________________ of the object.
The steepness of a line on a graph is called the
The rate at which velocity changes is called
Which of the following is the SI unit of acceleration?
not moving at all
On a graph showing distance versus time, a horizontal line represents an object that is
all over the world
The International System of Units is used by scientists
An object changing direction is an example of
A car approaching a red light is an example of ______________________.
If you know a car traveled 300 kilometers in 3 hours, you can find its
When an object's position relative to another object is changing, it is in _____________.
The basic SI unit of length is the
A place or object used for comparison to determine if something is in motion is called a
Average speed is the total ______________ traveled divided by the total time.
If a bicyclist travels 30 kilometers in two hours, her average speed is
If an object moved in the same direction and at a constant speed for 4 hours, the object's ________________________________ did not change.
To determine the acceleration of an object moving in a straight line, you must calculate the change in its speed during each unit of
In speed-versus-time graph, a straight line shows that acceleration is
_____________________________________ changes with new evidence or new interpretations.
During an experiment, which factors must be controlled so that researchers can draw a logical conclusion from the experiment?
A well-tested explanation for a wide range of observations or experimental results is called a
A statement that describes what scientists expect to happen every time under a particular set of conditions is a
A precipitate is a(n) ____________________ that forms from solution during a chemical reaction.
In a chemical equation, the substances written on the right side of the arrow are called ____________________.
In a(n) ____________________ change, elements and/or compounds rearrange to form new substances.
____________________ changes occur when bonds form between atoms, or when bonds break and new bonds form.
conservation of mass
The law of _________________________ states that during a chemical reaction, matter is not created or destroyed.
A chemical reaction that releases energy in the form of heat is a(n) ____________________ reaction.
The process of solid ice changing into liquid water is a(n) ____________________ change.
The _________________________ of a compound shows the ratio of elements present in the compound.
Scientific theories often make use of ____________________, which are representations of an idea to help scientists understand what they cannot observe directly.
Each element is given a specific _________________________ that usually consists of one or two letters.
A column of elements in the periodic table is called a group, or ____________________.
Mendeleev discovered that periodic patterns appeared when he arranged the elements in order of increasing ____________________.
The property of an element that indicates the number of protons in its atoms is the ____________________.
The chemical reactivity of metals tends to ____________________ from left to right across the periodic table.
In 1869, Dmitri Mendeleev created the first version of the ____________________.
The ____________________ is the very small center of an atom.
The overall force on an object after all the forces are added together is called the ____________________ force.
One ____________________ is the force required to accelerate 1 kilogram of mass at 1 meter per second per second.
The force of gravity between you and Earth is greater than the force of gravity between you and a car because Earth has more ____________________ than the car.
According to Newton's third law of motion, the strength of a reaction force is ____________________ the strength of the action force.
A person traveling in a car that stops suddenly keeps moving forward due to ____________________.
If the action force of a bat striking a ball accelerates the ball in one direction, the reaction force accelerates the bat in the ____________________ direction.
The momentum of an object is in the same ____________________ as its velocity.
The momentum of a roller skater is not conserved because ____________________ acts on the skates.
The basic SI unit of length is the ____________________.
A golf ball ____________________ when either its speed or direction changes.
If a car is speeding up, its initial speed is ____________________ than its final speed.
A change in an object's position relative to a reference point is called ____________________.
The distance traveled by a moving object per unit of time is called ____________________.
The statement that the motion of a hurricane is 20 kilometers per hour in an easterly direction is a description of the hurricane's ____________________.
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