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PSCI 2004 Final Review
Terms in this set (30)
According to Burke, what is the purpose of government, and what philosophical tradition is this part of?
The purpose of gov for Burke is to be in service of human wants, not rights. This is indicative of small c conservative thought
What purpose does aesthetics play for Burke?
Government, the nation and the people who run it should be "lovely". This forces people to have an emotional connection to the nation and feel pride in it
What is Marx's idea of the species being?
The human ability to think, create, build community. Human nature, human needs
Who said this? "To be truthful (honest) in all declarations is, therefore, a scared, unconditionally commanding law of reason that admits no expediency whatsoever"
What school of thought is motivating by increasing pleasure and minimizing pain? What two authors have we read that are part of this school of thought?
Utilitarianism. Bentham and Mill
What authors have we read that are contract theorists?
Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, and Mill
Who said this: "The peculiar evil of silencing the expression of an opinion is, that it is robbing the human race...If the opinion is right, they are deprived of the opportunity of exchanging error for truth"
What does it mean to have a teleological view of history? Who think this is true?
This means that everything that has happened in history is serving the purpose of getting towards an inevitable end point. Marx
What are the three parts of Kant's categorical imperative?
1. Universal Law
2. Formula for Humanity
3. Kingdom of Ends
Name one similarity between Rousseau and Machiavelli
Republics should be founded by a Great Legislator
According to Hobbes, what drives human nature?
Appetites and Aversions- the greatest appetite is the desire for a good life and the greatest aversion is the fear of death
Which thinker argued that we ought to be motivated by tradition rather than social progress and change?
According to Mill, there is a difference between Hurt and Harm. What are the differences and how do they apply to liberty?
Harm- Your actions knowingly and/or intentionally negatively affect another human. Allows for restriction of liberty.
Hurt- You unknowingly and unintentionally negatively impact another human.
What is Kant's "Publicity Principle?"
The publicity principle says that all things need to be able to be public. If something needs to be done in secret, it violates the categorical imperative- we cannot will a world where all people secretly don't obey civil law.
As a Utilitarian, does Bentham believe in punishment? If not, why not? If yes, what is its purpose?
In short, yes, Bentham thinks it is part of the government's job to punish acts that induce pain.
Punishment has two goals- 1 - to stop people from committing crime and 2 - to deter them from committing a harmful crime. Bentham says punishment should persuade people not to commit crime, should be visible, and should be minimally painful to achieve the desired effects
Does Marx see capitalism as unjust? Explain
No- Marx defines justice as what is determined by the state
Marx sees capitalism as a necessary stage we must pass through to realize communism
As a concept, what is the "State if Nature"? What purpose does it serve?
The State of Nature is a fictional place that helps explain human motivation for "contracting in" to the state. The concept of the State of Nature is used by Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau
Explain how Mill connects sexism to utilitarianism
Mill argues that sexism hurts society and all will benefits from equality. When we do not allow women liberty, we do not know what all humanity can accomplish. This decreases half of our human potential
Who said this?
"The adoption of this system of inequality never was the result of deliberation, or forethought, or any social ideas, or any notion whatever of what conduced to the benefit of humanity or the good order of society. It arose simply from the fact that from the very earliest twilight of human society, every woman (owing to the value attached to her by men, combined with her inferiority in muscular strength) was found in a state of bondage to some man."
Mill. Here Mill is arguing that sexism is based on tradition, not any sort of natural inequality
According to Marx, what is the relationship between the superstructure and the base?
Base: relations of production and means of production
Superstructure: education, politics, family, religion, media
Superstructure maintains and legitimizes the base
According to Kant, what is the problem with the Golden Rule?
It makes morality depend on a person's desires
What is Bentham's panopticon?
A building design with the purpose of making sure all inmates in an institution can be watched, without any of them knowing if they are being watched at any given time.
According to Marx, what is the primary goal of Communism as a revolutionary movement?
The abolition of private property
How does Kant define a 'maxim'?
A principle of action that one gives to oneself
What is a hypothetical imperative, according to Kant?
A command of our reason that depends on our desire, rather than universal principles
According to Marx, the history of human society up to his time is the history of...
How does Rousseau define freedom?
Following the law that one sets for oneself- ie. the freedom to make choices
Who said: "I certainly believe this: that it is better to be impetuous than cautious, because Fortune is a woman, and if you want to keep her under it is necessary to beat her and force her down. It is clear that she more often allows herself to be won over by impetous men than by those preceded coldly."
When did Kant believe that it was acceptable to lie?
True or False: Hobbes' Leviathan must always take the form of a single monarch
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