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IB History of the Americas 2; First Semester Final Review (actual)
Terms in this set (171)
Many criticized William Seward's purchase of Alaska from Russia for 7.2 million dollars, calling it his folly.
The idea that the United States and Latin American nations should work together
An agreement between two states in which each accepts the professional licensing requirements of the other
Monroe Doctrine (1823)
US foreign policy regarding Latin American countries stated that further efforts by European nations to colonize land or interfere with states in North or South America would be viewed as acts of aggression, requiring U.S. intervention.
The Hawaiian queen who was forced out of power by a revolution started by American business interests
Legally adding land area to a city in the United States
Alfred Thayer Mahan
Navy officer whose ideas on naval warfare and the importance of sea-power changed how America viewed its navy; wrote "The influence of Sea Power upon History"
When Cubans started to rebel, Spaniards begain to reorganize prisoners into labor camps.
Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers
Legislation that promised the US would not annex Cuba after winning the Spanish-American war
In 1898, a conflict between the United States and Spain, in which the U.S. supported the Cubans' fight for independence
Volunteer regiment of US Cavalry led by Teddy Roosevelt during the Spanish American War
Commodore George Dewey
Admiral of the united states navy and best known for his victory during the spanish - american war
Treaty of Paris
Agreement signed by British and American leaders that stated the United States of America was a free and independent contry
A group that opposed the treaty and the creation of an American colonial empire
Armed conflict between the Philippines and the United States from 1899-1902. It was a continuation of the Philippine struggle for independence. The Philippines declared war on the US and it became a savage conflict with guerilla warfare. Villages were destroyed, civilians were murdered, and prisoners were tortured. The war ended when Aguinaldo surrendered in 1902.
Leader of the Filipino independence movement against Spain (1895-1898). He proclaimed the independence of the Philippines in 1899, but his movement was crushed and he was captured by the United States Army in 1901.
Legislation that severely restricted Cuba's sovereignty and gave the US the right to intervene if Cuba got into trouble
Spheres of Influence in China
One country would have special authority or presence and another country would have a different area of authority. China became divided by European powers. The different European countries supported each other through the spheres of influence because of economic advantage
Open Door Policy
A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.
U.S. garantee of independence for newly created Republic of Panama
Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force
Foreign policy created under President Taft that had the U.S. exchanging financial support ($) for the right to "help" countries make decisions about trade and other commercial ventures. Basically it was exchanging money for political influence in Latin America and the Caribbean.
Foreign policy proposed by President Wilson to condemn imperialism, spread democracy, and promote peace
Big Stick Diplomacy
Diplomatic policy developed by T.R where the "big stick" symbolizes his power and readiness to use military force if necessary. It is a way of intimidating countries without actually harming them and was the basis of U.S. imperialistic foreign policy.
A British passenger ship that was sunk by a German submarine off the coast of Ireland and was one of the causes of the US going into World War I
Archduke of Austria-Hungary assassinated by a Serbian nationalist. A major catalyst for WWI.
A promise Germany made to America, after Wilson threatened to sever ties, to stop sinking their ships without warning.
Beginning in 1915, before U.S. entry into World War I, a movement led by former president Theodore Roosevelt that called on the government to increase U.S. military strength and convince Americans of the need for U.S. involvement in the war
A telegram Germany Sent to Mexico to convince Mexico to attack the U.S.
Alliance of Great Britain, Soviet Union, United States, and France during World War II.
Austria-Hungary, Germany, Ottoman Empire
Selective Service Act
Law passed by Congress in 1917 that required all men from ages 21 to 30 to register for the military draft
A form of warfare in which opposing armies fight each other from trenches dug in the battlefield.
AEF (American Expeditionary Force)
U.S. forces sent to Europe during WWI. Led by General John J. Pershing
A line of trenches and fortifications in World War I that stretched without a break from Switzerland to the North Sea. Scene of most of the fighting between Germany, on the one hand, and France and Britain, on the other.
Committee on Public Information
It was headed by George Creel. The purpose of this committee was to mobilize people's minds for war, both in America and abroad. Tried to get the entire U.S. public to support U.S. involvement in WWI. Creel's organization, employed some 150,000 workers at home and oversees. He proved that words were indeed weapons.
1917 act gave the government new ways to combat spying
Law that made it a crime to say, print, or write any criticism perceived as negative about the government
War Industries Board
Agency established during WWI to increase efficiency & discourage waste in war-related industries.
This government agency was headed by Herbert Hoover and was established to increase the production of food and ration food for the military.
Government agency created during the war to regulate the use of coal for the war effort
Wilson's 14 Points
President Woodrow Wilson proposed a 14-point program for world peace
Concept that ethnicities have the right to govern themselves
Leauge of Nations
The international organization formed after WW1 that ensured security and peace
Treaty of Versailles
The treaty imposed on Germany by the Allied powers in 1920 after the end of World War I which demanded exorbitant reparations from the Germans
Payment for war damages
Senators who voted against the League of Nations with or without reservations
The American System, 1815
Policies devised by the Whig Party and leading politician Henry Clay: national bank, high tariffs, and internal improvements
an agreement in 1820 between pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions in the United States concerning the extension of slavery into new territories
South Carolina (Jackson's VP John Calhoun) argued the sovereign states should be allowed to nullify the tariff of 1832 as well as other acts of congress.
Leader of a slave rebellion in 1831 in Virginia. Revolt led to the deaths of 20 whites and 40 blacks and led to the "gag rule' outlawing any discussion of slavery in the House of Representatives
An unsuccessful 1822 plot to burn Charleston, South Carolina, and initiate a general slave revolt, led by a free African American, Denmark Vesey.
a system of secret routes used by escaping slaves to reach freedom in the North or in Canada
cotton and cotton-growing considered, in the pre-Civil War South, as a vital commodity, the major factor not only in the economy but also in politics.
A machine for cleaning the seeds from cotton fibers, invented by Eli Whitney in 1793
A notion held by a nineteenth-century Americans that the United States was destined to rule the continent, from the Atlantic the Pacific.
(1846-1848) The war between the United States and Mexico in which the United States acquired one half of the Mexican territory.
American Colonization Society
A Society that thought slavery was bad. They would buy land in Africa and get free blacks to move there. One of these such colonies was made into what now is Liberia. Most sponsors just wanted to get blacks out of their country.
William Lloyd Garrison
1805-1879. Prominent American abolitionist, journalist and social reformer. Editor of radical abolitionist newspaper "The Liberator", and one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society.
American Anti-Slavery Society
Founded in 1833 by William Lloyd Garrison and other abolitionists. Garrison burned the Constitution as a proslavery document. Argued for "no Union with slaveholders" until they repented for their sins by freeing their slaves.
American abolitionist whose pamphlet Slavery As It Is (1839) inspired Harriet Beecher Stowe's novel Uncle Tom's Cabin.
were 19th-century American Quakers, educators and writers who were early advocates of abolitionism and women's rights.
American Presbyterian minister, journalist, and news paper editor who was murdered by a mob for his abolitionist views
(1817-1895) American abolitionist and writer, he escaped slavery and became a leading African American spokesman and writer. He published his biography, The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, and founded the abolitionist newspaper, the North Star.
most radical of all anti-slavery documents called for slaves to revolt against their masters. The goal of his appeal (he was a free black originally from the south) was to instill pride in his black readers and give hope that someday change would come. It spoke out against colonization
Hinton Rowan Helper (December 27, 1829 - March 9, 1909) was an American Southern critic of slavery during the 1850s. In 1857, he published a book which he dedicated to the "nonslaveholding whites" of the South.
1846 proposal that outlawed slavery in any territory gained from the War with Mexico
A belief that ultimate power resides in the people.
Free Soil Party
A political party dedicated to stopping the expansion of slavery
Compromise of 1850
(1) California admitted as free state, (2) territorial status and popular sovereignty of Utah and New Mexico, (3) resolution of Texas-New Mexico boundaries, (4) federal assumption of Texas debt, (5) slave trade abolished in DC, and (6) new fugitive slave law; advocated by Henry Clay and Stephen A. Douglas
Fugitive Slave Act
A law that made it a crime to help runaway slaves; allowed for the arrest of escaped slaves in areas where slavery was illegal and required their return to slaveholders
Personal Liberty Laws
Laws passed by Northern states forbidding the imprisonment of escaped slaves
A moderate, who introduced the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854 and popularized the idea of popular sovereignty.
1854 - Created Nebraska and Kansas as states and gave the people in those territories the right to chose to be a free or slave state through popular sovereignty.
1854 - anti-slavery Whigs and Democrats, Free Soilers and reformers from the Northwest met and formed party in order to keep slavery out of the territories
A declaration (1854) issued from Ostend, Belgium, by the U.S. ministers to England, France, and Spain, stating that the U.S. would be justified in seizing Cuba if Spain did not sell it to the U.S.
A sequence of violent events involving abolitionists and pro-Slavery elements that took place in Kansas-Nebraska Territory. The dispute further strained the relations of the North and South, making civil war imminent.
Election of 1856
Democrats nominated Buchanan, Republicans nominated Fremont, and Know-Nothings chose Fillmore. Buchanan won due to his support of popular sovereignty
Uncle Tom's Cabin
written by harriet beecher stowe in 1853 that highly influenced england's view on the American Deep South and slavery. a novel promoting abolition. intensified sectional conflict.
Dred Scott v. Sanford
Supreme Court case that decided US Congress did not have the power to prohibit slavery in federal territories and slaves, as private property, could not be taken away without due process - basically slaves would remain slaves in non-slave states and slaves could not sue because they were not citizens
supported the existence of slavery in the proposed state and protected rights of slaveholders. It was rejected by Kansas, making Kansas an eventual free state.
1858 Senate Debate, Lincoln forced Douglas to debate issue of slavery, Douglas supported pop-sovereignty, Lincoln asserted that slavery should not spread to territories, Lincoln emerged as strong Republican candidate
John Brown's scheme to invade the South with armed slaves, backed by sponsoring, northern abolitionists; seized the federal arsenal; Brown and remnants were caught by Robert E. Lee and the US Marines; Brown was hanged
Election of 1860
Lincoln, the Republican candidate, won because the Democratic party was split over slavery. As a result, the South no longer felt like it has a voice in politics and a number of states seceded from the Union.
Historical Explanations of the Crisis
People were like there were many causes of the civil war, key factors of the civil war. Slavery was the biggest factor of the civil war
Ten Percent Plan
Lincoln's plan that allowed a Southern state to form its own government after ten percent of its voters swore an oath of loyalty to the United States
After the Civil War, a group that believed the South should be harshly punished and thought that Lincoln was sometimes too compassionate towards the South.
1864 Proposed far more demanding and stringent terms for reconstruction; required 50% of the voters of a state to take the loyalty oath and permitted only non-confederates to vote for a new state constitution; Lincoln refused to sign the bill, pocket vetoing it after Congress adjourned.
Organization run by the army to care for and protect southern Blacks after the Civil War
Impeachment Trial of Andrew Johnson
The radical Republicans had a huge majority in Congress, but Johnson was still the chief enforcer of their acts, so they wanted to get rid of him. He violated the Tenure of Office Act, so Congress impeached him, but he was very narrowly acquitted.
A system used on southern farms after the Civil War in which farmers worked land owned by someone else in return for a small portion of the crops.
A northerner who went to the South immediately after the Civil War; especially one who tried to gain political advantage or other advantages from the disorganized situation in southern states
A derogatory term for Southerners who were working with the North to buy up land from desperate Southerners
legalized marriages between blacks
A positive accomplishment of Civil Rights Act of 1865
Ku Klux Klan
A secret society created by white southerners in 1866 that used terror and violence to keep African Americans from obtaining their civil rights.
putting a person to death by mob action without due process of law
Credit Mobilier Scandal
This scandal occurred in the 1870s when a railroad construction company's stockholders used funds that were supposed to be used to build the Union Pacific Railroad for railroad construction for their own personal use. To avoid being convicted, stockholders even used stock to bribe congressional members and the vice president.
Whiskey Ring Scandal
Before they were caught, a group of mostly Republican politicians were able to siphon off millions of dollars in federal taxes on liquor; the scheme involved an extensive network of bribes involving tax collectors, storekeepers, and others.
Indian trading post scandal
Secretary of war accepted bribes from merchant who traded with Indians at army pots in the West. Post-office contracts went to carriers who offered the highest kick backs. opens peoples eyes
13th Amendment (1865)
Abolition of slavery w/o compensation for slave-owners
Declares that all persons born in the U.S. are citizens and are guaranteed equal protection of the laws
15th Amendment (1870)
U.S. cannot prevent a person from voting because of race, color, or creed
Laws denying most legal rights to newly freed slaves; passed by southern states following the Civil War
Acts passed to promote African American voting and mainly aimed at limiting the activities of the Ku Klux Klan. Through the acts, actions committed with the intent to influence voters, prevent them from voting, or conspiring to deprive them of civil rights, including life, were made federal offenses. Thus the federal government had the power to prosecute the offenses, including calling federal juries to hear the cases.
Jim Crow Laws
Laws designed to enforce segregation of blacks from whites
Compromise of 1877
Ended Reconstruction. Republicans promise 1) Remove military from South, 2) Appoint Democrat to cabinet (David Key postmaster general), 3) Federal money for railroad construction and levees on Mississippi river
Largely former slave owners who were the bitterest opponents of the Republican program in the South. Staged a major counterrevolution to "redeem" the south by taking back southern state governments. Their foundation rested on the idea of racism and white supremacy. Redeemer governments waged and aggressive assault on African Americans.
African Methodist Episcopal Church
Richard Allen founded this first independent black Protestant run church in 1816 in the US. It supported abolition and founded educational institutions for free blacks
5 of these were created in the South to govern and enforce Reconstruction
Booker T. Washington
African American progressive who supported segregation and demanded that African American better themselves individually to achieve equality.
Rutherford B. Hayes
19th president of the united states, was famous for being part of the Hayes-Tilden election in which electoral votes were contested in 4 states, most corrupt election in US history
Democratic candidate for the U.S. presidency in the disputed election of 1876, the most controversial American election of the 19th century. A political reformer, he was a Bourbon Democrat who worked closely with the New York City business community, led the fight against the corruption of Tammany Hall, and fought to keep taxes low
Formal withdrawal of states or regions from a nation
This is the name given to some Southern Democratic politicians prior to the Civil War who were willing to cooperate with the Republican Party if the institution of slavery was protected from elimination.
1860 - attempt to prevent Civil War by Senator Crittenden - offered a Constitutional amendment recognizing slavery in the territories south of the 36º30' line, noninterference by Congress with existing slavery, and compensation to the owners of fugitive slaves - defeated by Republicans
The first shots of the civil war were fired at fort, Summer in South Carolina
"Lower south" or "cotton kingdom"; area where the majority of the country's cotton was produced; plagued w/ disease
Designation used in the Civil War encompassing the states of Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas
in the civil war the states between the north and the south: Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri
A conflict in which the participating countries devote all their resources to the war effort
V.aguely outlined by Confederate President Jefferson Davis and Gen. Robert E. Lee. Desire to avoid long and costly war by convincing North to quit through specific war aims by either: attack union advances into the south at an opportune time/place to achieve decisive battlefield win OR launch an opportunistic raid into Northern territory to demoralize Northerners. Get war out of the South, to achieve big battlefield win, gain foreign support
On to Richmond
Pushing Union to go to the Capital of the Confederacy
Union war plan by Winfield Scott, called for a blockade of the southern coast, the capture of Richmond, capture Mississippi R, and to take an army through the heart of south
rule by the army instead of the elected government
writ of habeas corpus
A court order requiring jailers to explain to a judge why they are holding a prisoner in custody.
A military draft
Monitor v. Virginia
The first battle between ironclads was on March 9, 1862
Battle of Antietam, most casualties, Lee's move north was discovered by plans McClellan found, he new Stonewall was taking harpers ferry and had split from lee, McClellan moved between the two and attacked Lee, he had almost twice them men but never pushed to finish off Lee after some success he allowed Lee to retreat. (*this victory allowed Lincoln the victory he had waited for the emancipation proclamation)
King Cotton Diplomacy
The South's political strategy during the Civil War; it depended upon British and French dependency on southern cotton to the extent that those two countries would help the South break the blockade
Issued by Abraham Lincoln on September 22, 1862 it declared that all slaves in the confederate states would be free
Contraband of War
The practice of treating escaped blacks as property of military value subject to confiscation.
First African American unit to fight a battle, to show the other soldiers that they could fight
Enrollment Act of 1863
A controversial act passed to provide new recruits to the Union Army. It was very controversial and required the enrollment of every male citizen and those immigrants who had filed for citizenship between 20-45.
New York Riots
July 1863 just after the Battle at Gettysburg. Mobs of Irish working-class men and women roamed the streets for four days until federal troops suppressed them. They loathed the idea of being drafted to fight a war on behalf of slaves who, once freed, would compete with them for jobs.
A group of northern Democrats who opposed abolition and sympathized with the South during the Civil War
A battle near a sluggish little creek, it proved to be the bloodiest single day battle in American History with over 26,000 lives lost in that single day.
(AL) 1863 (meade and lee), July 1-3, 1863, turning point in war, Union victory, most deadly battle
Vicksburg, Mississippi 1863
The capture of Vicksburg, by the Northern (Union) forces in 1863, was important because it geographically divided the Confederacy and gave the Union Army control of the Mississippi River.
Appomattox Court House, 1865
A village in Virginia where General Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant in April 1865, effectively ending the American Civil War. The Confederates were treated with respect after their surrender
John Wilkes Booth
Assassinated Abraham Lincoln
States that have most recently experienced a significant, costly war are more peaceful in the aftermath because of the impact of those costs and experiences
A 3-minute address by Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War (November 19, 1963) at the dedication of a national cemetery on the site of the Battle of Gettysburg
Created in 1861 to improve the medical services and treatment for sick and wounded Union soldiers during the course of the war.
New Orleans, LA
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