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Ap Environmental CH. 1.5
Terms in this set (27)
Slash and burn cultivation
Clearing forests by cutting small sections down and burning them allowing the ashes to fertilize the ground
Began in England, mid-1700s, spreading to US in 1800s. Dependence switched to no renewable resources. Economy switched from local, small-scale production to large-scale production.
Since the 1970s gaining rapid info all over the world has been easy. Technology has made this easy.
4 eras: tribal, frontier, conservation, environmental
N. America occupied by 5-10 million tribal people 10,000 years before the European explorers in the early 1600s
Early 1600s as European colonists began settling in N. America
The human race is & should be the master of nature. The earth and it's resources exist for our benefit and pleasure.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
-Published Nature in 1836
-Early critic of rampant economic development
-Stated in his journals, "This invasion of nature by trade with its money, it's credits, it's steam, it's railroads, threatens to upset the balance of man and nature.
Henry David Thoureau
-Wrote walden, described a yr. in which he lived in the country to have contact with natures "essential facts of life"
-Wrote book while living in Concord, Massachusetts
-Believed we need to protect nature from the vandalism of a few
-Believed "wilderness mirrors divinity, nourishes humanity, and vivifies the spirit"
-Argued that only gov't control could save cali's sequoia groves from the "ravages of fools"
-Organized Sierra club
-His actions convinced the federal gov't to restrict development in Yosemite valley.
-Wrote A Sand County Almanac
-Worked in forest service towards the development of a wilderness policy & founded the field game management
-Said regulated hunting can maintain a proper balance of wildlife
-Wrote the amount of space and type of forage of a wildlife habitat determine the number of animals that can be supported.
-Wrote several articles for The New Yorker in 1960 which generated widespread discussion about pesticides
-Wrote Silent Spring, which dramatized the potential danger of pesticides to food, wildlife, & humans. Eventually led to pesticide changes for the US
-His term in office was called the Golden Age of Conservation
-Passed the Antiquities Act allowing him to set aside many large areas of land which would become national parks(Grand Canyon, Yellowstone)
Tripled the amount of land in the National Wilderness system
Reduced budgets & staffs of conservation Organizations. He also reduced funding for research towards renewable energy research.
Warnings from 1960s
-Cuyahoga river caught on fire
-The passenger pigeon became extinct
-Foam from laundry detergents appeared in streams
-Air pollution killed people in NYC
Areas with minimal human influence
Passed in 1964
First annual Earth Day
April 22, 1970 in order to strengthen awareness of environmental quality
Environmental protection agency
Endangered species act
The United Nations Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species. CITES continues to raise the issue of trade sanctions against China and Taiwan if they do not more rigorously attempt to halt the trade of Rhinos and Tiger parts.
1989 Exxon Valdez Spill
-Off the coast of Alaska
-A tool called the Valdez Principles were developed so corporations could evaluate their responsibility
-Adopted Valdez Principles in 1992
-An independent group of environmentalists and social investors
-Coalition for Environmentally Responsible Economics
Set of codes businesses can adopt voluntarily
Oil embargo in 1973
Only grows what they need to feed their immediate family
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