Matter, Minerals and Rocks Study Guide
Smallest unit of all mater
matter made from 1 type of atom
Positive, Found in Nucleus
Negative, Orbits Nucleus
Neutral, Found in Nucleus
Located in atoms Nucleus
Proton and Electron
an element with different # of neutrons than protons
2 or more atoms bounded together
Force that holds 2 atoms together
3 types of Chemical Bonds
Ionic, Covalent, and Metalic
forms when an atom gains or loses electrons
forms when atoms share electrons
forms when electrons are shared by metal ions
Particle that is involved with bonding
A solid substance with a crystal structure
(silicates and Oxygen)
(Carbon, Oxygen, Metal)
(Oxygen and Metal)
Sulfates and Sulfides
(Halogen and all elements in group 17)
Most abundant mineral group
Elements they contain
How do we identify minerals?
Color of Powdered form
how easy the rock scratches materials
Color (can be misleading)
Random pieces (breaks)
Other Properties used for describing physical properties of minerals
Density, Smell, ETC.
Mohs Hardness Scale?
1-10 scale of hardness
Hardest Substance (rock)
What determines minerals properties?
Rocks and Minerals related?
Rocks are composed of minerals
3 types of rocks
Igneous, Sedimentary, and Metamorphic
Igneous rocks form?
Intrusive Igneous Rock?
comes from under the earth
Extrusive Igneous Rock?
comes from above the earths surface
Igneous Rock with glassy appearance?
Igneous rock that has larger crystal grains?
This process affects the rate of crystal growth within a rock...
rate of cooling
How Metamorphic rock is formed?
Heat and Pressure
How metamorphic rocks are classified with layers
How metamorphic rocks are classified without layers
How sedimentary rocks are formed?
weathering and erosion
small pieces of broken down rock
Pressure (pushing together)
type of sedimentary rock, made of fragments of rock cemented together with calcite or quartz
minerals crystallize out of solution to become rock
Remains of plants and animals
The type of rocks that can form sedimentary
Igneous, Metamorphic, and Sedimentary (All Rocks)
The Rock Cycle?
how rocks form
Rock that fossils would be in
Most abundant type of rock on the surface of the earth