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Matter, Minerals and Rocks Study Guide

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Atom
Smallest unit of all mater
Element
matter made from 1 type of atom
Proton
Positive, Found in Nucleus
Electron
Negative, Orbits Nucleus
Neutron
Neutral, Found in Nucleus
Located in atoms Nucleus
Proton and Electron
Isotope
an element with different # of neutrons than protons
Compound
2 or more atoms bounded together
Force that holds 2 atoms together
Chemical Bond
3 types of Chemical Bonds
Ionic, Covalent, and Metalic
Ionic Bond
forms when an atom gains or loses electrons
Covalent Bond
forms when atoms share electrons
Metallic Bond
forms when electrons are shared by metal ions
Particle that is involved with bonding
Electrons
Mineral
A solid substance with a crystal structure
Silicates
(silicates and Oxygen)
Carbonates
(Carbon, Oxygen, Metal)
Oxides
(Oxygen and Metal)
Sulfates and Sulfides
(Sulfur)
Halides
(Halogen and all elements in group 17)
Native
(Single Element)
Most abundant mineral group
Silicates
Minerals Classified?
Elements they contain
How do we identify minerals?
Physical Properties
Luster
reflection
Streak
Color of Powdered form
Hardness
how easy the rock scratches materials
Color
Color (can be misleading)
Cleavage
Smooth (breaks)
Fracture
Random pieces (breaks)
Other Properties used for describing physical properties of minerals
Density, Smell, ETC.
Mohs Hardness Scale?
1-10 scale of hardness
Hardest Substance (rock)
Diamond
What determines minerals properties?
Talk
Rocks and Minerals related?
Rocks are composed of minerals
3 types of rocks
Igneous, Sedimentary, and Metamorphic
Igneous rocks form?
Cooling magma
Intrusive Igneous Rock?
comes from under the earth
Extrusive Igneous Rock?
comes from above the earths surface
Igneous Rock with glassy appearance?
Extrusive
Igneous rock that has larger crystal grains?
Intrusive
This process affects the rate of crystal growth within a rock...
rate of cooling
How Metamorphic rock is formed?
Heat and Pressure
How metamorphic rocks are classified with layers
Foliate
How metamorphic rocks are classified without layers
Non-Foliate
How sedimentary rocks are formed?
weathering and erosion
Sediment?
small pieces of broken down rock
Compaction?
Pressure (pushing together)
Cementation
Sediment Hardens
Clastic
type of sedimentary rock, made of fragments of rock cemented together with calcite or quartz
Chemical Sedimentary
minerals crystallize out of solution to become rock
Organic Sedimentary
Remains of plants and animals
The type of rocks that can form sedimentary
Igneous, Metamorphic, and Sedimentary (All Rocks)
The Rock Cycle?
how rocks form
Rock that fossils would be in
Sedimentary
Most abundant type of rock on the surface of the earth
Sedimentary