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Terms in this set (32)
Any agent that inhibits bacterial growth, impedes the replication or kills bacteria
An agent produced by a microorganism or produced semi-synthetically from a microorganism that inhibits bacterial growth, impedes replication, or kills bacteria micro-organisms
An agent the kills microorganisms or supresses their multiplication or growth
Kills bacteria (e.g. penicillins)
Inhibits bacteria replication. Then the immune system can remove the inhibited bacteria.
An enzyme that certain bacteria contain that destroys the beta-lactam ring, and therefore, the effectiveness of certain antibiotics (the B-lactams- penicillins and cephalosporins)
-Minimal Inhibitory Concentration: the lowest concentration of an antimicrobial that macrosopically inhibits the growth of an organism
What does MIC represent? What would a small MIC number mean?
-the degree of susceptability of the organism to a drug -The smaller the MIC number the more effective it is predicted to be in vitro
Agar Disc Diffusion Test (Kirby-Bauer test)
-A method to determine resistance or susceptibility (like MIC)
How do anti-microbials work?
by interfering with the microorganism's cell synthesis processes
What are the five areas where antimicrobials can interfere with a microorganism's cell synthesis?
1. Nucleic Acids (DNA replication) 2. Proteins 3. Cell wall 4. Cell membrane 5. Metabolic products
What does bacterial resistance occur? What is it's basis?
Occurs when a bacteria is no longer susceptible to an antibiotic or disinfectant. -The basis for antibiotic resistance is genetic and can be broken down int two mechanisms (mutational and transferred)
What are the two mechanisms of bacterial resistance?
1. Mutational resistance 2. Transferred resistance
Explain how mutational resistance occurs
a bacteria spontaneously mutates, and the mutation increases the bacteria's chance of survival in the presence of a certain antibiotic(sometimes not), it thrives and continues to reproduce
WHat two things enhance the chance of mutated bacteria surviving? How can they be prevented?
1. Inadequate exposure time (Complete treatment) 2. Sub-lethal doses (Give proper doses)
Explain how transferred resistance occurs
Genetic material from a resistant bacteria that mutated is transferred from one organism to another in three ways
Which of the two mechanisms of resistance is the most important development of resistance in a clinic setting?
What are the three mechanisms of transferred resistance?
1. Bacterial conjugation: direct transfer between bacteria 2. Transduction (bacteriophage): small pieces of DNA (plasmids) are transferred by bacterial viruses from one bacterium to another 3. Transformation: transfer of naked DNA
Where and between who can transferred resistance occur?
-Can occur in vivo, or in the environment -Can occur between bacterial species
What are four points illustrating the significance of antibiotic resistance for humans?
1. Humans and animals share many genera and species bacteria 2. Some bacteria can transfer their resistance genes quickly 3. New antibiotic drugs are not in inexhaustible supply 4. Some bacteria are close to being resistant to every currently available antibacterial
Name the Twelve Antibacterial Agent Families/Classes (PPCTSALMFNNCF)
1. Polypeptide 2. Penicillin 3. Cephalosporin 4. Tetracyclines 5. Sulfonamides 6. Aminoglycosides 7. 8. Lincosamides 9. Fluoroquinolones 10. Nitorfurans 11. Nitroimidazoles 12. Chloramphenicol and Florphenicol
Give an example of a narrow spectrum antimicrobial drug that has a mainly gram + spectrum
Give an example of a narrow spectrum antimicrobial drug that has a mainly gram - spectrum
Which class of antibacterial is best known for nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity?
WHat drug would be a good choice for anaerobic bacteria involved in dental infections in dogs?
Are lipid soluble drugs or water soluble drugs better absorbed from the GIT?
Give an example of the trade name and the individual drugs of a potentiated drug
Trade Name: Clavamox Individual Drugs: Clavulanic Acid and Amoxicillin
Which antibacterial should not be used on young puppies until after their growth plates have closed to avoid _______ ______?
-Enrofloxacin (of the Fluoroquinolones) -articular damage
List the two main methods that labs use to determine antimicrobial sensitivity or resistance patterns of pathogens
1. (MIC) Minimal Inhibitory Concentration 2. (Kirby-Bauer) Agar Disc Diffusion Test
Chronic use or high dose therapy of this antibiotic can lead to neurologic toxicity. The clinical signs include vestibular abnormalities (___ ____, ______, _______)
-Metronidazole (of the Nitroimidazoles) (head-tilit, nystagmus, ataxia)
Name three drugs that are effective against mycoplasma organisms:
1. Tetracycline 2. Macrolides (Erythromycin) 3. Chloramphenicol
Name the antibiotic that can be fatal if accidentally injected into humans, ___, ____ or _____
-Tilmicosin -horses, dogs and pigs
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BIOL 455-Chapter 20: Antimicrobial Drugs
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