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13 terms

Vitamins

STUDY
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B1
Thiamine (TPP)
Deficiency: ATP depletion->affects brain and heart first
1. dry beriberi (CNS)-polyneuritis, symmetrical muscle wasting
2. wet beriberi (CV)-high output cardiac failure (dilated cardiomyopathy)
3. Wernicke-Korsakoff-confusion, optholmoplegia, ataxia, memory loss, confabulation, personality change
B2
Riboflavin (FAD/FMN=2ATP) cofactor in redox rxns
Deficiency: Cheilosis, Corneal vascularization
B3
Niacin (NAD/NADP=3ATP)
tryptophan + B6-->niacin-->NAD/NADP
Deficiency:
(Hartnup disease--dec absorption tryptophan--treat w/ oral niacin)
(carcinoid--inc tryptophan metabolism)
(Isoniazid)
1. Glossitis
2. Pellegra: Diarrhea, Dementia, Dermatitis
S/E: facial flushing (used for hyperlipidemia)
B5
pantothenic acid (CoA) component of CoA and fatty acid synthase
B6
pyridoxine (PLP) cofactor in transamination (ALT, AST), heme synthesis, decarboxylation rxns, glycogen phosphorylase
Deficiency: (Isoniazid, oral BC)
sideroblastic anemia
B7
Biotin cofactor for carboxylation enzymes
B12
cobalamin-->cofactor for homocystein methyltransferase
found in meat and years stored in liver
Deficiency: build up of homocysteine and methylmalonyl-CoA; macrocytic anemia with neurologic defects (prolonged is irreversible damage); due to malabsorption (EtOH, sprue, pernicious anemia, Crohns, gastric bypass, Diphyllobothrium latum)
Schilling test to detect pernicious anemia
Folate
converts to THF (tetrahydrofolate)-->coenzyme for 1 carbon transfer/methylation
synthesis of nitrogen bases
Deficiency: macrocytic anemia w/o neurologic symptoms (EtOH, pregnancy)
A
fat soluble
antioxidant
vision (pigments), differentiation of epithelial cells
Deficiency: night blindness, dry skin
Toxicity: teratogenic (Isotretinoin)
D
D3 (from milk or made in from sunlight in skin)->25-OHD3 (storage form made in liver, bound to plasma proteins)->1,25-OH2D3 (active form made in kidney)
1. increase Ca++ and phosphate reabsorption in kidneys
2. increase Ca++ and phosphate reabsorption in gut
3. inc bone resorption-->remodeling, mineralization
Deficiency:
1. Rickets/Osteomalacia
2. (extracellular) hypocalcemia-->hyperreflexia
TPP
1. pyruvate dehydrogenase (glycolysis)
2. alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (TCA)
3. transketolase (HMP shunt)
4. Branched-chain AA dehydrogenase
E
antioxidant protects RBCs and membranes
Deficiency:
hemolytic anemia
K
coagulation factors 2,7,9,10,C,S
made by GI flora
Deficiency (neonates--have no gut flora):
hemorrhage