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Thiamine (TPP)
Deficiency: ATP depletion->affects brain and heart first
1. dry beriberi (CNS)-polyneuritis, symmetrical muscle wasting
2. wet beriberi (CV)-high output cardiac failure (dilated cardiomyopathy)
3. Wernicke-Korsakoff-confusion, optholmoplegia, ataxia, memory loss, confabulation, personality change


Riboflavin (FAD/FMN=2ATP) cofactor in redox rxns
Deficiency: Cheilosis, Corneal vascularization


Niacin (NAD/NADP=3ATP)
tryptophan + B6-->niacin-->NAD/NADP
(Hartnup disease--dec absorption tryptophan--treat w/ oral niacin)
(carcinoid--inc tryptophan metabolism)
1. Glossitis
2. Pellegra: Diarrhea, Dementia, Dermatitis
S/E: facial flushing (used for hyperlipidemia)


pantothenic acid (CoA) component of CoA and fatty acid synthase


pyridoxine (PLP) cofactor in transamination (ALT, AST), heme synthesis, decarboxylation rxns, glycogen phosphorylase
Deficiency: (Isoniazid, oral BC)
sideroblastic anemia


Biotin cofactor for carboxylation enzymes


cobalamin-->cofactor for homocystein methyltransferase
found in meat and years stored in liver
Deficiency: build up of homocysteine and methylmalonyl-CoA; macrocytic anemia with neurologic defects (prolonged is irreversible damage); due to malabsorption (EtOH, sprue, pernicious anemia, Crohns, gastric bypass, Diphyllobothrium latum)
Schilling test to detect pernicious anemia


converts to THF (tetrahydrofolate)-->coenzyme for 1 carbon transfer/methylation
synthesis of nitrogen bases
Deficiency: macrocytic anemia w/o neurologic symptoms (EtOH, pregnancy)


fat soluble
vision (pigments), differentiation of epithelial cells
Deficiency: night blindness, dry skin
Toxicity: teratogenic (Isotretinoin)


D3 (from milk or made in from sunlight in skin)->25-OHD3 (storage form made in liver, bound to plasma proteins)->1,25-OH2D3 (active form made in kidney)
1. increase Ca++ and phosphate reabsorption in kidneys
2. increase Ca++ and phosphate reabsorption in gut
3. inc bone resorption-->remodeling, mineralization
1. Rickets/Osteomalacia
2. (extracellular) hypocalcemia-->hyperreflexia


1. pyruvate dehydrogenase (glycolysis)
2. alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (TCA)
3. transketolase (HMP shunt)
4. Branched-chain AA dehydrogenase


antioxidant protects RBCs and membranes
hemolytic anemia


coagulation factors 2,7,9,10,C,S
made by GI flora
Deficiency (neonates--have no gut flora):

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