Terms in this set (20)
Mayflower Compact of 1620
This was the first agreement for self-government in America. It was signed by the 41 men on the Mayflower and set up a government for the Plymouth colony.
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
This document set up a unified government for the towns of the Connecticut area (Windsor, Hartford, and Wethersfield). Adopted in 1639, it was the first constitution written in America. It provided a plan of government that included a representative assembly and a popularly elected governor.
Maryland Act of Toleration (Act of Religious Toleration) of 1649
This was an act passed by the Maryland legislature through the work of the 2nd Lord Baltimore. It assured freedom of worship to all who believed in the Christian doctrine of the Trinity (essentially all Christians whether Catholic or Protestant). Although limited to Christians and although later repealed in 1692, this was one of the earliest statutes of religious liberty America.
Molasses Act of 1733
This was British legislation which taxed all molasses, rum, and sugar which the colonies imported from countries other than Britain and her colonies. This act angered the New England colonies, which imported a lot of molasses from the non British parts of the Caribbean as part of the Triangular Trade. The British had difficulty enforcing the tax and most colonists ignored it by resorting to smuggling in foreign molasses.
Treaty of Paris, 1763
This was the treaty between Britain, France, and Spain, which ended the French and Indian War. By this treaty, France lost Canada and other lands east of the Mississippi River, some of its Caribbean islands, and India to Britain. Spain, which had allied with France in this conflict, was forced to cede Florida to the British. France also gave New Orleans and the land west of the Mississippi to Spain (to compensate it for its loss of Florida). This treaty gave Great Britain control of the eastern half of North America and signaled the end of New France.
Proclamation Act of 1763
A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east. It also barred traders from entering the region unless they first obtained a license from the governor of one of the colonies. Through this act the British government also heavily restricted purchases of land in the Indian territory. Although this was meant to be a temporary measure until such time as the British could negotiate treaties with the Indians in this area, it was very upsetting to the colonists who felt as if they were being denied economic opportunity. This act played a role in the build-up of tension between the American colonies and Great Britain.
These were legislative acts passed by the English Parliament in the 17th and 18th centuries to promote and protect English industry and commerce against foreign competition. Additionally, these regulations, which taxed goods imported by the colonies from places other than Britain, sought to control and regulate colonial trade. They were part and parcel of the mercantilistic policy which England followed toward its colonies. Throughout much of the 18th century, the British only loosely enforced the Navigation Acts, but after the French and Indian War, the British government began to strongly enforce them because Britain needed to pay off debts incurred during the war and to pay the costs of maintaining a standing army in the colonies.
Sugar Act (AKA Revenue Act) of 1764
This was part of Prime Minister George Grenville's revenue program. This act placed taxes on foreign products imported into the colonies such as wine, indigo, coffee and most importantly sugar and molasses. The act replaced the Molasses Act of 1733, and actually lowered the tax on foreign sugar and molasses (which the New England colonies imported to make rum as part of the triangular trade) from 6 cents to 3 cents a barrel, but unlike the old Molasses Act the British tried to enforce it strongly. The law placed tighter administrative controls on coastal shipping and also provided that violations of the Sugar Act would be prosecuted in the vice-admiralty courts, in which cases were heard by British-appointed judges with no local juries. The colonists hated this act because they saw it as an attempt on the part of the British government to raise revenue from them. Also, they were very upset that persons accused of violating this act would not have jury trials—to the colonists this was an infringement on one of their cherished liberties.
Currency Act, 1764
This was British legislation which banned the production of paper money in the colonies. Various colonies (most decisively Virginia) had issued inflationary paper currencies as a way to get themselves out of debt. British creditors did not want to be re-paid with inflationary paper money---thus they convinced the British government to issue this act. This act was very upsetting to the colonists because now they would have to pay debts in specie (coin) of which there was little in circulation, and because it would, thus, hurt them economically.
This March 1765 act required that all legal or official documents used in the colonies, such as wills, deeds and contracts, newspapers, playing cards, etc. had to be written on special, stamped British paper. It was so unpopular in the colonies that it caused riots, and most of the stamped paper sent to the colonies from Britain was burned by angry mobs. Because of this opposition, and the decline in British imports caused by the non- importation movement, London merchants convinced Parliament to repeal the Stamp Act in 1766.
Stamp Act Congress, 1765
This was a meeting of 27 delegates from 9 colonies in October 1765. It drew up a list of declarations and petitions against the new taxes imposed on the colonies and called for more organized colonial opposition to the Stamp Act.
Declaratory Act of 1766
This act was passed by parliament on the same day the Stamp Act was repealed in March of 1766. The act declared that Parliament had the power to tax the colonies both internally and externally, and had absolute power over the colonial legislatures. Very little attention was paid to this act because the colonists were so happy about the repeal of the hated Stamp Act, but the passage of this act ensured that there would be future conflict between the colonies and Britain.
Quartering Act of 1765
This was a March 1765 act which required the colonials to provide food, lodging, and supplies for the British troops stationed in the colonies. It was hated and the colonists saw it as another example of British tyranny.
Townshend Acts (aka Duties) of 1767
This was another series of revenue measures, passed by parliament at the urging of Charles Townshend (Chancellor of the Exchequer) in 1767. They taxed quasi-luxury items imported into the colonies, including paper, lead, tea, and paint. The colonial reaction was outrage and the colonies instituted another movement to stop importing British goods.
Tea Act of 1773
This was a 1773 act, which eliminated the customs duty on the English East India Company's tea and permitted its direct export to America. The company's tea, although still subject to the Townshend duty, would be cheaper than the smuggled Dutch tea most Americans drank. Lord North thought the colonists would buy this cheaper tea and, thus, accept the duty on tea. This act was hated in the colonies because it was seen as a tricky way to get the colonies to accept the tax on tea and because American merchants would lose a valuable trade, because the company planned to sell its tea through its own agents. Opposition to this act sparked the Boston Tea Party.
Boston Tea Party, 1773
This was a December of 1773 incident involving British ships carrying English East India tea. They sailed into Boston Harbor and refused to leave until the colonials took their tea. Boston was boycotting the tea in protest of the Tea Act and would not let the ships bring the tea ashore. On the night of December 16, 1773, colonists disguised as Indians boarded the ships and threw the tea overboard, destroying about 10,000 pounds worth of tea in the process. In the aftermath of this incident, the British government cracked down harshly on the colony of Massachusetts.
Also known as the Intolerable Acts, this was legislation passed by the British parliament in 1774 to punish Massachusetts for the Boston Tea Party. This act did the following: 1.Closed the port of Boston, 2. Put governmental authority in the hands of a royal governor, 3. Moved trials of British soldiers and officials from Massachusetts if they were accused of violence against a colonist during a protest or riot, and 4. Provided for the quartering of British troops in private homes. This act backfired against Britain and caused colonial discontent to spread.
Quebec Act, of 1774
This act passed by parliament in 1774 greatly extended the size of the British province of Quebec. This alarmed the 13 colonies because it infringed on some of their western land claims and because it did not provide for Quebec to have a colonial legislature. To the colonists, this was a dangerous precedent because it might be applied to them to do away with their local legislative bodies.
Olive Branch Petition
This was a final plea for peace from the American colonies in July 1775. In this document, the second continental congress asked the King George III to repeal the hated laws (such as the Coercive Acts and the other taxation without representation policies) and pledged that the colonies would remain loyal to the British government if the king and parliament did away with these laws. This petition had no impact as King George III ignored its appeals and in August 1775 declared the colonies to be in a state of rebellion.
The Declaration of Independence
This was the document used by the 13 British North American colonies to proclaim their independence from Great Britain. The Declaration of Independence was adopted in final form on July 4, 1776. This document included a famous introduction which was a brilliant statement of natural rights of man and the legitimacy of revolution. The rest of the document was a list of specific grievances against England's King George III and a formal claim of independence. After the issuance of this document the American Revolution became a war for independence.
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Road to the American Revolution Test Vocabulary
AJ CH. 5
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Preparing a Saline or Dextrose Solution
Measurements & Formulas
Adverse Side Effects of Different Drug Groups
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
History 201 Unit 1 people
history terms& places
history 201 notes