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How does igneous rock form?
When magma cools down.
How do intrusive igneous rocks form
?When magma hardens beneath the earths surface.
How do extrusive igneous rocks form?
When lava hardens the rocks are called
Whatis the difference between magma and lava
Lava lets most of its gasses escape - Magma doesnt.
What size crystals will result when magma cools slowly underground?
The crystals will be big.
What size will crystals will result when lava (or magma) cools quickly?
The crystals will be small.
What are the two minerals most commonly found in the rocks with granitic compositions?
Quartz and Feldspar.
Rocks that have a basaltic composition are rich in what minerals? This will result in what color rocks?
Iron - This will result in darker color rocks.
Is light, has holes from air pockets and floats.
Is fine grained, and dark colored.
Contains many dark minerals, and is dense.
70 % silica, are major rocks of continental crust.
List and describe the 5 steps generally required to form a sedimentary rock.
Weathering, erosion, deposition, compaction, and cementation.
Sedimentary rocks can be classified in 2 main groups based on how they form. List the 2 groups and explain how each forms.
Rocks that are made of weathered bits of rocks and minerals - this is called clastic sedimentary
The 2nd group forms when dissolved minerals precipitate from water solutions - this is called chemical sedimentary rocks.
Under what circumstances would ripple marks form on a sedimentary rock?
Ripple marks may indicate that the rock formed along a beach or stream bed.
What do mud cracks in a sedimentary rock indicate about the enviornment in which it is formed?
Mud cracks form when wet mud or clay dried and shrank leaving a rock record of a dry environment. ( A dry environment)
What can a fossil tell you about sedimentary rock in which it is found? Give at least 3 answers.
The rock from land or water hot or cold rain or dry land.
What property is used to catagorize the different types of clastic rocks?
List 4 examples of classic sedimentary rocks.
Conglomerate, brecia, sandstone, stistone
List 2 examples of chemical sedimentary rocks.
How are medamorphic rocks formed?
When existing rocks are changed by heat and pressure.
Compare and contrast metamorphism and regional metamorphism.
Both go through high temperatures - contact makes marble - regional makes granite.
What 2 processes may cause minerals to re-crystalize with a metamorphic rock?
Magma and the change in temperature with depth.
How do foliated rocks form? List 2 examples.
When rocks undergo contact metamorphism become more compact. When it is subjected to temperatures and pressure only slightly greater than those at which the shale form.
List an example of non-foliated rocks.
Marble is non- foliated rock made of calcite.
What is banding and would you find banding in a foliated or non-foliated metamorphic rock?
Banding is the parallel layers that are perpendicular to the pressure that causes them. You would find it in a foliated rock.
Which process will cause the spaces between mineral crystals to close in a metamorphic rock and in what changes will result in the rock?
Slow cooling - The result will be bigger crystals.
Recommended textbook explanations
Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
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Earth Science: The Physical Setting (Prentice Hall Brief Review for the New York Regents Exam)
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HMH Science Dimensions Earth & Space Science
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Prentice Hall Science Explorer: Inside Earth
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