American Government Chapter 2

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Terms in this set (...)

Limited Government
Which the power of the government is limited, not absolute.
Stamp Act
Imposed the first direct tax on the colonists. It required them to pay a tax on legal documents, pamphlets, and even dice and playing cards., ...
Second Continental Congress
This Congress assumed the power of the cental government. The Second Contintal Congress served as the acting govermnet of the colonies throughout the war. meeting of Colonial delegates in philladelphia to decide how to react to fighting at lexington and concord.
Common Sense
1776: a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that claimed the colonies had a right to be an independent nation.
First Continental Congress
1774; response to Intolerable Acts; 55 men from 12 colonies meet on Philadelphia; called for complete halt in trade with Britain; important step towards independence.
Check and Balances
Each branch of government has certain powers over the others to keep balance among the branches. An example is that the President (executive branch) can veto a law proposed by Congress (legislative branch)
Popular Sovereignty
Rule by the people United States government is based upon the consent of the government flows from the people., A government in which the people rule by their own consent.
Virginal Plan
presented at the Constitutional convention and it called for a three-branch system of government with a bicameral legislature. Plan presented by delegates from Virginia at the CC; called for three branch government with a bicameral legislature in which each state's membership would be determined by it's population or its financial support for the central government
3/5 Compromise
A compromise between Southern and Northern states reached during the Philadelphia Convention of 1787 in which three-fifths of the population of slaves would be counted for enumeration purposes regarding both the distribution of taxes and the apportionment of the members of the United States House of Representatives.
Articles of Confederation
The structure and operation of government., This document, the nation's first constitution, was adopted by the Second Continental Congress in 1781 during the Revolution. The document was limited because states held most of the power, and Congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or control coinage.
John Locke
1632-1704. Argued that government exists to protect "life, liberty, and property" More optimistic about human nature. Believed humans enjoyed certain inalienable rights that no government can take away. Humans entered into social contract to establish government and protect rights
Shays Rebellion
Rebellion led by Daniel Shays of farmers in western Massachusetts in 1786-1787, protesting mortgage foreclosures. It highlighted the need for a strong national government just as the call for the Constitutional Convention went out.
Alexander Hamilton
"founding father," and author of the Federalist Papers, the first Secretary of the Treasury, and the architect of the first fiscal plan for the United States after ratification of the Constitution. Also is a delegates who favoreda strong national government.
James Madison
"Father of the Constitution". His proposals for an effective government became the Virginia Plan, which was the basis for the Constitution. He was responsible for drafting most of the language of the Constitution. Also was an political theorist and 4th President of the United States
Marbury v. Madison
The 1803 case in which Chief Justice John Marshall and his associates first asserted the right of the Supreme Court to determine the meaning of the U.S. Constitution. The decision established the Court's power of judicial review over acts of Congress, (the Judiciary Act of 1789).
Federalist Paper
A collection of 85 articles written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison under the name "Publius" to defend the Constitution in detail
Republic
A form of government in which citizens choose their leaders by voting
Bill of Rights
First ten amendments to the Constitution, drafted by Madison, placed limitations of government and protects natural rights.
Intolerable Acts
1774, series of punitive measures passed in retaliation for the Boston Tea Party, closing the port of Boston, revoking a number of rights in the Massachussetts colonial charter, and expanding the Quartering Act to allow for the lodging of soldiers in private homes. In responsem colonists convened the First Continental Congress and called for a complete boycott of British goods
New Jersey Plan
A framework for the Constitution proposed by a group of small states. Its key points were a one-house legislature with one vote for each state, a Congress with the ability to raise revenue, and a Supreme Court with members appointed for life.