The formal vehicle through which policies are made and affairs of state are conducted.
Proposed a constituational amendment that owuld lower the coting age to 18 in 1942. Believing that sinced young men were old enough to be draftered to go to war, and to fight and die for their country, they also should have the right to vote.
Young people have not traditionally voted (ages 18-29)
In 2012 record numbers of young people voted due to social networking. 19% of all voters were young and 60% of those ages 18-29 voted for Obama.
Virginia House of Burgesses
Formed in 1619; The General Court that governed the Massachusetts Bay Colony after 1629.
For 140 years, this system worked fairly well.
British monarchs allowed the colonists significant liverties in terms of self-government, religious practices, and exonomins organization. The King ruled by devine right.
An economic theory designed to increase a nation's wealth through the development of commercial industry and facorable balance of trade, justified Britain's maintenance of strict import/export controls on the colonies.
"No taxation without representation"
The political cry that followed the Stamp Act in 1764.
Sugar Act of 1764
Placed taxes on sugar, wine, coffee, and other products commonly exported to the colonies.
THis law required that all paper items, from playing cards to books bought and sold in the colonies carry a stam mandated by the crown.
Sons of Liberty/Daughters of Liberty
Under the leadership of Samuel Adams and Patrick Henry, men and women throughout the colonies oraganized these groups. Protests agains the Stamp Act were violent and loud.
Stamp Act Congress
First official meeting of representatives of nine of the thirteen colonies held in New York City in 1765, during which representatives drafted a document to send the kind that listed how their rights had been violated. The first step toward creating a unified nation.
On March 5, 1770, British troops opened fire on an unruly mod that included disgruntled dockworkers, whose jobs had been taken by British Soldiers, and members of the Sons of Liberty, who were taunting the soldiers and thwoing objects at British Sentries stationed in front of the Boston Customs House. 5 colonists were killed.
Committees of Correspondence
In 1772, at the suggestion of Samuel Adams colonists created organizations in each of the American colonies created to keep colonists abreast of developments witht he British; served as powerful molders of public opinion against the British.
Coercive Acts of 1774
King George's first act of retaliation. KNown in the colonies as the Intolerable Acts, they contained a key provision of calling for a total blockage of the Boston Harbor, cutting off Bostonian's access to many foodstuff, until restitution was made for the tea.
First Continental Congress
Meeting held in Philadelphia from September 5 to October 26, 1774 in which fifty-six delegates (from every colony except Georgia) adopted a resolution in opposition to the Coercive Acts
Second Continental Congress
Meeting that convened in Philadelphia on May 10, 1775 at which it was decided that an army should be raised and George Washington of Virginia was named commander in cheif.
"The Shot Hear 'Round The World"
Before the Second Continental Congress could meet, fighting broke out in the early morning of April 19, 1775 at Lexington and Concord, Massachusetts. Eight cologinal soldiers, called Minutemen, were killed and 16,000 troops besieged Boston.
Denounced the corrupt British monarchyand offered reasons to break with Great Britain. "The blood of the slain, the weeping voice of nature cries 'Tis Time to Part."
Declaration of Independence Committee members
Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, Robert Livingston, Roger Sherman, and Thomas Jefferson.
Social Contract Theory
Believed by John Locke which holds that governments exist based on the consent of the governed.
Declaration of Independance
Document drafted largely by Thomas Jefferson in 1776 that proclaimed the right of the American colonies to separate from Great Britain.
Articles of Confederation
The compact between the thirteen original colonies that created a loose league of friendship, with the national government drawing its powers from the states.
Type of government in which the national government derives its powers from the states; a legue of independant states.
Historians refer to the chaotic period from 1781 to 1789, when the former colonies were governed under the Article of Confederation.
A former member of the Maryland House of Delegates and of the First Continental Congress, was the first person to preside over the Congress of the Confederation. Sometimes referred to as the first president of the United States.
A rebellion in which an army of 1,500 disgruntled and angry farmers led by Daniel Shays marched to Springfield, Massachusetts and forcibly restrained the state court from foreclosing mortgages on their farms.
A document establishing the structure functions, and limitations of a government.
The first general plan for the Constitution offered in Philadelphia. Its key points were a bicameral legislature as well as an executive and judiciary chosen by the national legislature.
New Jersey Plan
A framework for the Constitution proposed by a group of small states. Its key points were a one-house legislature with one vote for each state, a Congress with the ability to raise revenue, and a Supreme Court with members appointed for life.
Taking ideas from both the Virginia Plan and the New Jersey plan... The final decision of the Constitutional Convention to create a two-house legislature, with the lower house elected by the people and with the powers divided between the tow houses. I also made national law supreme.
Agreement reached at the Constitutional Convention stipulating that each slave was to be counted as three-fifths of a person for purposes of determining population for representation in the USHOR.
"All other Persons"
The euphemistic way of referring to slaves.
Committee on Unfinished Portions
Its sole task was ironing out problems and disagreements concerning the office of chief executive. THe committee recommended that the presidential term of of office be fixed at four years instead of seven.
Seperation of Powers
A way of dividing the power of the government among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches each staffed separately, with equality and independence of each brach ensured by the Constitution.
Checks and Balances
A constitutionally mandated structure that gives each of the three branches of government some degree of oversight and control over the actions of the others.
System of government in which the national government and state governments share power and derive all authority from the people.
Three Key features of Separation of Powers
Three distinct branches of government: the legislative, the executive, and the judicial. Three separately staffed branches of government to exercise these functions. Constitutional equality and independence of each branch.
Legislative Branch Powers
Pass all federal laws, pass federal budget, declare war, and establish lower federal courts and the number of judges.
Judicial Checks on the Legislative
Rule federal and state laws unconstitutional
Legislative Checks on the Judicial
Change the number and jurisdiction of federal courts, Impeach federal judge, Propose constitutional amendments to override judicial decisions.
Legislative Checks on the Executive
Impeach the president, reject legislation or funding the president wants, refuse to confirm nominees or approve treaties, override the president's veto by a two-thirds vote.
Executive Checks on The Legislative
Veto legislation, call congress into special session, implement (or fail to implement) laws passed by Congress.
Judicial Branch Powers
Interpret federal laws and US Constitution, Review the decisions of lower state and federal courts.
Executive Branch Powers
Enforced federal laws and court orders, propose legislation to Congress, make foreign treaties, nominate officers of the US government and federal judges, Serve as commander in chief of the armed forces, pardon people convicted in federal courts or grant reprieves.
Appoint federal judges, refuse to implement decisions.
Judicial branch powers
Interpret federal laws and US Constitution, review the decisions of lower state and federal courts
The powers of the national government specifically granted to Congress in Article I, section 8 of Constitution.
Necessary and proper clause
The final paragraph of Article I, section 8 of the constitution, which gives Congress the authority to pass all laws "nexessary and proper" to carry out the enumerated powers specified in the Constitution; also called the elastic clause.
The powers of the national government derived from the enumerated powers and the necessary and proper clause.
Full faith and credit clause
Section of Article IV of the Constitution that ensures judicial decrees and contracts made in one state will be binding and enforceable in any other state.
Portion of Article VI of the Constitution mandating that national law is supreme to (that is, supersedes) all other laws passed by the states or by any other subdivision of government.
Those who favored a stronger national government and supported the proposed uS Constitution later became the first US political part.
Those who favored strong state governments and a weak national government; opposed ratification of the US Constitution.
The Federalist Papers
A series of 85 political essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay in support of ratification of the US Constitution.
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments to the US Constitution, which largely guarantee specific rights and liberties.
Methods of Proposal
by two-thirds voted in both houses of Congress.
Methods of Proposal
By national constitutional convention called by Congress and the request of two-thirds of the sate legislatures. (This method never has been used to propose an amendment.)
Methods of Ratification
By the legislatures in three-fourths of the states. By conventions in three-fourths of the states.
Marbury v. Madison
The Supreme Court declared that federal courts had the power to nullify acts of the nation's government when the courts found such acts to conflict with the Constitution.