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Principles of Biomedical Science - Unit 3.1.1 to Unit 3.2.1 COMPLETE Study Guide - Preparation for Unit 3 Quiz Final
Terms in this set (20)
What is protein synthesis? Explain how a protein is synthesized.
Protein synthesis, or the process by which gene expression happens, can be divided into two main steps: transcription and translation. In that, the genes that are present in the double helix of DNA are transferred, or moved, to form proteins, and in this parent strand, there is a region called a promoter region, which indicates to the DNA polymerase where to bind -- the initiation stage. As this is ongoing, the DNA polymerase unzips the DNA double helix into two separate strands, where there is a complementary pairing of the mRNA bases -- the enlargement stage. (A == U, C === G)
In order for this event to finish, there is a location called a terminator region, in the DNA, and once the DNA polymerase approaches this place, the constructed mRNA is released -- the terminating stage.
Alongside with that, there are portions within the mRNA called extrons that code for proteins, and introns that do not code for any proteins, and hence, in the case of intron splicing, the spliceosomes remove the unwanted introns from the mRNA.
Thus, with the addition of a 5' cap and a 3' poly-A tail, a mature mRNA strand is formed, whence it moves into the cytoplasm of the cell, to be converted into a protein in translation.
In this stage, the mRNA is used as a template, and for each three letters of nitrogenous bases, called codons, there is a complementary tRNA strand produced, when the ribosome affixes itself to the mRNA. With the tRNA, there is a corresponding amino acid, and as each of them bind with the codons of mRNA in the E, P, and A places of the ribosome subunit, the amino acid is released, where it forms peptide bonds with other amino acids. For a while, this process continues, until the ribosome reaches a stop codon, which signals the end of the process, in which case the polypeptide chain of amino acids is released to form a protein.
What is erythropoetin? Where is it produced? What is its function in the human body?
Erythropoetin - a hormone secreted/produced by the kidneys, present to stimulate the bone marrow to produce more red blood cells, to monitor/protect red blood cells, and makes sure they are not destroyed/damaged by any foreign substances/bodies.
What is sickle cell disease? What are the symptoms it is associated with? What do the shape of the red blood cells resemble? How does its structure parallel its function?
Sickle cell disease is an inherited disorder, and it is known to induce/cause major problems, as sickle cells have a lesser lifespan than normal red blood cells (which is 90-120 days), and this makes them prone to breaking down easily, which reduces the quantity of healthy red blood cells flowing throughout the body. Adding to this, the fact that these affected blood cells are sickle/crescent-shaped causes them to block the proper flow of blood in veins/arteries, as well as in smaller blood vessels called capillaries, leaving other parts of the body more vulnerable to disorders from the lack of flowing blood. (basically their function - to prevent proper flow of oxygen/nutrients in body) Even more, there are multiple symptoms that can appear with the disease, such as: - pain crises/episodes of pain, edema, (or) swelling of the hands and feet caused by blocked flow of the arteries, a decreased ablility of the immune system (spleen) to completely fight off all illnesses/viruses, stunted growth, from there not being enough red blood cells to provide nutrients (essential) for body's growth, vision problems - tiny blood vessels are occluded by sickle-shaped red blood cells, damaging the retina, jaundice, a yellow tinge of eyes/skin caused by excessive breakdown of red blood cells, fatigue, as there is not enough oxygen carried by the hemoglobin, due to the sickle cells being thinned out, lowering amount of oxygen carried to rest of body/its organs.
What is anemia?
Anemia - a condition marked by the presence of a low red blood cell count in the blood inside the body.
What is hydroxyurea?
Hydroxyurea - a medicine used to mitigate/lessen, or just cope with, the effects of a sickle cell crisis, which includes prolonged pain (in chest/leg areas), dizziness, shortness of breath.
What is a hematocrit (Hct), and how is it performed? What purpose does it serve?
hematocrit - blood test identifying disorder of anemia, and it does this by measuring percentage of total blood that contains red blood cells. In this way, the blood is centrifuged, so it is spun at high speeds to separate plasma and white blood cells from red blood cells. This measure is used to find percentage of red blood cells in the blood, using this formula - red blood cell level/total blood level * 100 = percent red blood cell level volume = hematocrit
What is plasma? What is its function?
Plasma is a yellowish-white liquid, comprised of salt, water, and enzymes, that is present in the blood, and its primary goal is to transport nutrients, hormones, and proteins to parts of the body requiring it. Adding to this, it is the place where cells deposit their waste products, which is then excreted/removed from the body.
Associated with that, plasma even carries all the important components of blood, including antibodies, clotting factors, and the proteins albumin/fibrinogen.
What are red blood cells (erythrocytes) and the purpose they serve?
Red blood cells are flexible, disc-shaped cells that contain the protein hemoglobin, which transports oxygen to the rest of the cells in your body, from the lungs. Additionally, it removes carbon dioxide (CO2) as a waste product from the cells, and deposits it in the lungs, where a person can exhale it.
What are white blood cells (leukocytes), and what tasks do they perform?
White blood cells, or leukocytes, guard the immune system to prevent the intrusion of any unknown substances, so as to protect the body from any illnesses or disease. Besides, they can flow through the bloodstream in order to fight off/repel viruses, bacteria, and other invaders that put the body's overall health in jeopardy. Basically, they are the "immunity cells" of the immune system, as they are able to control the body's immune response to ward off/eradicate the harmful substance.
What are platelets (thrombocytes) and what role do they play?
Platelets are small blood cells that aid in the formation of clots to prevent bleeding/blood loss. In more detail, if a blood vessel is damaged, it releases signals to other platelets, which causes them to converge upon the site of damage, once there, to prevent any further bleeding.
How do the parts of the blood mend a wound?
In the case of the formation of a wound, the first event that would result is the platelets rapidly coming in, so as to block the wound by adhering to the site. Following that, proteins within the plasma known as clotting factors drive a series of chemical reactions, which create a hard protein called fibrinogen. As this is coming into place, these strands form a webbing, which traps floating red blood cells. In due time, these platelets, fibrinogen, and red blood cells coalesce to form a clot, which hardens into a scab.
What is a sickle cell crises, and what are some symptoms that it results in?
Sickle cell crises - are incidents when someone afflicted with sickle cell disease experiences painful periods/episodes at certain times. Coupled with that, these events can vary in frequency/number, as well as in intensity, and some common symptoms include: - shortness of breath - swelling of the joints/hands (edema) - chest pain - fever - pneumonia - and degeneration of the joints/bones (caused by a extended period of low/no blood flow to these areas)
What is hemoglobin, and where can it be commonly found? What role does it carry out?
Hemoglobin is a protein identifiable in the red blood cells of the body, and the main purpose of hemoglobin is that it transports/carries oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the cells in the body. Likewise, it is also associated with removing, or the withdrawal of, carbon dioxide from cells, and bringing it back to the lungs, for a person to exhale.
What is transcription/steps of transcription?
Transcription is when the genes contained within the parent strand of DNA are copied to a complementary strand of mRNA, and this event happens, for there is a particular area called the promoter region, which provides the place for the DNA polymerase to bind (the initiation stage). Shortly ensuing this, the DNA polymerase unzips/unwinds the two strands of DNA in the double helix, making it possible for the complementary nitrogenous bases of mRNA to form as another strand.
In time, as this growth continues, and the DNA polymerase moves farther down the gene section of the DNA, once the polymerase reaches the terminator region, it is a signal that directs the completion of mRNA being assembled, after which the mRNA is released.
Subsequently, in this newly-formed mRNA, there are sections called introns, which do not code for proteins, but there are also extrons, which do code for proteins. With this, during intron splicing, the spliceosomes, or the assorted body of RNA and proteins, remove the excess introns from the mRNA, and by enclosing it with a 5' cap and a 3' poly-A tail, a mature mRNA strand is formed. Therefore, it can move into the cytoplasm of the cell, to be converted into a protein during translation.
What is translation, and its steps? Explain.
Translation is when the genes present in mRNA are replicated/duplicated in order to create proteins, and as the mRNA strand is used as a template, for every one of its codons result in the creation of a complementary tRNA strand, and attached with it, is the particular amino acid. Once the ribosome establishes itself on the mRNA strand, it causes the tRNA strands to bind to the mRNA molecule, in the E, P, and A locations of the ribosome. As this process continues, it results in the release of another amino acid, where they are soldiered together by peptide bonds. In the same manner, as the polypeptide chain continues to grow, and the ribosome moves further down, it will reach the 'stop' codon, where the finishing of the process is signified, so the polypeptide chain of amino acids is released and a protein is formed.
How does a mutated gene lead to sickle cell disease?
A mutated gene can lead to the presence of sickle cell disease, for there is a defective/abnormal type of hemoglobin formed, known as hemoglobin S, due to a point mutation, or a change of one nitrogenous base pair in the genes. Going off of this, it also results in the distortion of normal red blood cells, thus making them to become sickle-shaped.
How do you calculate magnification on our light microscopes?
The particular way to calculate/figure out the magnification on light microscopes (in class) is to multiply the ocular by the objective (ocular * objective) in order to find/obtain the value that stands for magnification.
(Note - for this case, the setting for ocular remains unchanged, but depending on whether it is low, medium, or high power, the value of the objective will experience a similar change)
Transcribe and translate a strand of DNA, while using a table to interpret the chain of resulting amino acids?
An actual representation of transcription and translation in the nitrogenous bases of DNA can be displayed by an example, in which the parent strand of DNA is:
DNA - ACG - TGC - TAC - GGA - GCA - CCG - GCT
mRNA- UGC - ACG - AUG -CCU - CGU - GGC -CGA
Amino Acid - Cysteine - Threonine - Methionine - Proline - Arginine - Glycine - Arginine
Make a mutation to the previous DNA code - how will this change the amino acid chain?
First, the three main types of mutations are point mutations, insertions, and deletions, and in the last two cases, they are classified as a frame mutation. With that, a point mutation is a change in just one nitrogenous base pair, as the base has been altered by other external/surrounding environmental factors. Notwithstanding, a insertion is the addition of a nitrogenous base, which causes the inclusion of an extra nitrogenous base pair. Aside from that, a deletion is the removal of a specific nitrogenous base, ultimately eliminating the total nitrogenous base pair.
As it pertains to this scenario, a mutation made to the previous DNA code is UGC - AUC - GAU - GCC - UCG - UGG - CCG - A, which is an insertion, and this would induce a significant alteration to the amino acid chain, because the addition of the Uracil nitrogenous base in the fifth base pair makes the nitrogenous base become Isoleucine, from Cysteine, and this causes the resulting polypeptide chain of amino acids to form a completely different protein.
Match the structures of transcription and translation to its corresponding name?
A - wiffle ball-like structure is the nucleus
B - mRNA/messenger RNA - is the complete/mature RNA strand directly emanating from the nucleus, and it is moving to the cytoplasm to be used in translation
C - Ribosome - the enzyme that attaches to the mRNA and mandates its binding to the tRNA, as well as bonding the amino acids together
D - tRNA/transfer RNA - is the part that causes a coherence of its anti-codon with the mRNA codon, as well as the fact that it brings the amino acid into place
E - Anticodon - this sequence of three nucleotide bases is complementary to the codon present in mRNA
F - Codon - this pattern of three nucleotide bases combines with the anti-codon in the tRNA, and provides the code for the respective amino acid
G - Amino Acid - is carried by tRNA to merge in the polypeptide chain as it bonds with the mRNA, and it is the molecular subunit/monomer of a protein
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