Structural Materials Final Exam

What reason do we have for the study of materials and their properties?
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Name one normal-weight aggregateLimestoneName one lightweight aggregateExpanded perliteWhat is Maximum Aggregate size?Smallest sieve size through which all particles passWhat is an open-graded aggregate?Large voids between particlesWhat moisture states are found in-situ (in stockpiles)?Air Dry/ WetWhat are the two most important properties of bitumen (like asphalt) isn't eh construction industry?Sticky, waterproofIs it better to distill petroleum quickly or slowly in order to obtain high quality asphaltSlowly so it has time to remove enough of the impuritiesWhat is one benefit to using an asphalt pavement vs one benefit of using a Portland cement concrete pavement?Asphalt pavement is quick to lay down and by the next few hours people could drive on it whereas Portland cement concrete is more durable because there are no voids which increase strengthWhat is one natural source of bitumen?Coal, tarpitList two properties of aggregates that are very important to the structure of asphalt pavement and why each is importantAngular to create strength because angles cause no movement. We also want no moisture contentWhy do we take bulk specific gravity of asphalt samples in lab?Bulk specific gravity includes impermeable and permeable spaces taken account of in the labWhat is roughly the temperature needed to heat hot-mixed asphalt for use as a pavement?300-350 FWhat is one functional purpose of a pavement?Smooth, allow transportation to different areasWhat is one structural purpose of a pavement?Protect the soil from harsh conditionsWhat rating system is currently in use for asphalt pavement?PG 58-34What purpose does a cold mix (emulsion) asphalt pavement serve?To allow rapid cooling so that you can drive on it quickerWhat is the load changed to in order to study the material properties instead of sample size?StressWhat is the toughness of a material?The area under the entire stress-strain curveWhich type of property measures the reactivity of a material?ChemicalWhat type of property measures the resistance of a material to applied loads?MechanicalWhich lab determined property includes only impermeable spaces within each particle?Apparent Specific GravityWhich word defines spaces in between each particleVoidsName one lightweight aggregateVolcanic glass, shaleWhat is a gap graded aggregate?One or more sieve sizes missingWhat moisture states can be predictably replicated in the lab?Saturated Surface Dry/ Oven dryWhy do we take apparent specific gravity of asphalt samples in lab?Apparent specific gravity because bulk includes both impermeable and permeable pores, while in lab we only want the impermeable poresWhat are two of the most important physical properties of wood that affect the strength and durability of clear wood lumber?Moisture content and specific gravityWhat is the main mechanism through which decay of wood occurs?MoistureDuring the main mechanism through which decay of wood occurs?MositureDuring drying, or seasoning, of lumber the moisture content will eventually reach the fiber saturation point. Where does moisture remain in relation to the cells of the wood?Cells empty of water and cells o the wood?Moisture content in wood at about 30 percent is considered which of the following conditions?Fiber saturation pointMoisture content in wood for the best use as a structural member is at which of the following conditions?Air dryWhich of the following defects is a separation of wood occurring perpendicular to the annual rings?CheckWhich of the following directions has the lowest shrinking when drying lumber?AxiallyWhich of the following directions has the lowest strength in seasoned lumber?TangentiallyWhat is the difference between visually graded lumber and machine-rated lumber (describe both)?Visually is by seeing the lumber and basing it off of what is there. Machine rated lumber is when you test the stress and strainWhich of the following wood products are created by laying an odd number of thin layers of lumber in alternating fiber pattern?PlywoodWhich of the following chemical compounds make up the strength of the tree, the cell walls?CelluloseWhich of the following chemical compounds is the glue that holds the tree's cells together?LigninName two methods to season lumber?To set outside for a long time (air dry) , oven dryWhat term is used for lumber with dew defective characteristics?ClearwoodWhat term is used for the smaller, closely packed cells created during an annual growth cycle?LatewoodWhat is the very center of the trunk of the tree?PithWhat term is used for lumber created from deciduous trees?HardwoodWhat is the less dense part of the tree that moves nutrient between roots and leaves?SapwoodWhy is limestone added to the blast furnace?Removes impuritiesWhat is the main product of the blast furnace?Pig ironWhat is generally manufactured from a steel billetRebarThe modulus of elasticity of ordinary mild steel is most nearly?29,000 ksiWhat has no significant effect on the micro structure and properties of iron products?Blooms, slabs, or billetsWhich of the following is the least common type of furnace used to produce iron today?Open hearthDecreasing the carbon content of steel does which of the following?Increases ductility, toughness and the melting Decreases the strength and hardnessWhat is the most common failure of structural steel?YieldA failure in which of the following is the most common cause of collapse of steel construction?ConnectionWhich of the following most accurately describes a composite material?Made of two or more distinct materials or phasesWhy are the composites used as structural material?To allow the smaller composite material to close the gap, increasing the strength of the materialThe matrix phase has three main purposes in a composite, list two of the three below.Bonding and shapingList one example of a microscopic composite made with particlesSand used in making of concreteWhat is the difference between solid and hollow concrete masonry units?Solid units weigh more and can be used to build structures whereas hollow units weigh less and can have steel bars go through it to increase the tensile strengthWhat is the difference between specified and nominal dimension of masonry blocks?Specified is the dimension of the block and nominal is the space between each block that is taken up by the cementWhat is the difference about the production of clay bricks as opposed to concrete masonry bricks?Concrete is more dense and the clay brick is smaller in sizeIs grout low slump or high slump mix? What is grout's main function?Grout is a high slump mix and it is used to self levelWhat is generally manufactured from a steel bloom?Structural Steel ShapesWhat has the most significant effect on the micro structure and properties of iron products?Coke and limestoneWhich of the following is the most common type of furnace used to produce iron today?Basic OxygenWhat is the most common deterioration of structural steel?Rust