APES semester 1 exam

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Sustainable Practices and Principles
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Terms in this set (134)
Positive Feedback LoopWhen the initial change to the component is amplified by the series of changes. Causes a system to change further in the same direction.Positive Feedback Loop exampleChildbirth, ripening of fruitNegative Feedback LoopInitial change to a system is undone. Causes a system to change in the opposite direction from which it is movingNegative Feedback Loop exampleThermoregulation (body temperature changing)Chemical Formula for Acid DepositionH2O + CO2 → H2CO3Supply and DemandHow much people demand vs how much the earth can sustainably supplyInternal CostsCosts businesses base its price off ofInternal Costs examplesMaterials, energy, labor, plant, equipmentExternal CostsAka externalities, not in price business chargesExternal Costs examplesCosts of disposing the product, environmental degradation, health problems from emissions and pollutantsAcid on pH scale0-6.9Base on pH scale7.1-14Neutral pH7Ecosystem ServicesNatural services or capital that supports life on earth and are essential to the quality of human life and the functioning of the world's economiesEcosystem Services examplesChemical cycles, natural purification of water and airIPAT EquationImpact = Population x Affluence x TechnologyGreatest impact in less-developed countriesPopulationGreatest impact in developed countriesAffluence and technologyPoint Source PollutionSingle, identifiable source that discharges pollutants into the environmentNon-point Source Pollutionbroad and diffuse into large areas, enter bodies of water or airPoint Source Pollution examplesChimneys, smokestacksNon-point Source Pollution exampleRun-offPlanetary Management WorldviewHumans are separate from nature, and humans can control nature for their needs, humans are the planet's most important species, humans will not run out of resources because humans will find new ways to get resourcesStewardship WorldviewHumans are the planets most important species, but humans have an ethical responsibility to care for the rest of nature, humans should encourage environmentally helpful economic growth, humans' success depends on how well we can manage the earth's life support systemEnvironmental WorldviewWe are not in charge of the earth, but we are a part of nature, limited resources should not be wasted, economic growth does not hurt planetAnthropogenicOriginating from humansAnthropocentricHuman centeredBiocentricLife centeredEcocentricEarth centeredPolarity of waterUneven distribution of electron density in the molecule; negative charge on oxygen side and positive charge on hydrogen sideFirst Law of ThermodynamicsWe cannot get more energy out than is put in; Energy cannot be created or destroyedSecond Law of ThermodynamicsAs energy is transferred, it always goes from more useful to less usefulPredator-prey relationshipRelationship b/t 2 organisms in which one is prey for the otherCoevolutionTwo species evolve off of the selective pressures placed on each otherParasitismOne species feeds on another usually by living on or inside the hostMutualismSpecies behave in ways that both sides benefitCommensalismInteraction that benefits one species but has little effect on the otherInterspecific Competitioncompetition for the same resource by different speciesIntraspecific Competitioncompetition by same speciesResource partitioningWhen organisms compete for similar resources, they use physical traits that allow them to best access their resources and surviveCompetitive Exclusion PrincipleMade by Gause, When more than one species compete for the same resource, one will win outDesert Climate/soilArid, No humidity and drastic drops in temperature at night, Soil has high minerals but low nutrientsPlants in DesertCactus (waxy leaves)Animals in DesertRodents, lizards (most nocturnal)Tundra locationNorthern parts of CanadaTundra soilSoil has little nutrients and lots of erosion from wind, permafrost keeps ground coldTundra PlantsSmall shrubs and grasses (short and group together to bear cold)Tundra AnimalsArctic foxes, bears, squirrels (breed quickly in summer, have fur)Tundra ProblemsMelting ice capsConiferous Forest SoilSoil is acidic; low pHPhytoplanktonAlgaeUltraplanktonProducers making up most food chainsZooplanktonDrifting animals like jellyfishNekton examplesFish, turtles, whalesBenthos examplesOysters, sea stars4 key factors to determine the types and numbers of organismsTemperature, dissolved oxygen, availability of food, availability of light and nutrientsEuphotic zoneZone where sun can penetrate and photosynthesis occursCoastal zoneWarm nutrient rich and shallow waterBathyal zoneUnder euphotic, smaller fishAbyssal zoneLowest zone, wormsLentic (standing) waterlakes, ponds, inland wetlandsLotic (flowing)Rivers, streamsWatershedLand area that delivers runoff, sediment, and dissolved substances to a stream, lake, or wetland; Also known as a drainage basinOgliotrophic lakesLow in plant nutrients, low NPP and fed by mountain streams and glaciersEutrophicNutrient richCultural eutrophicationHuman input of nutrientsOcean is sink forCarbonWhat cycles carbon?Photosynthesis and respirationWhat increases ocean acidification?Increase in carbonWhat releases carbon into soil?Dead organismsNitrogen fixationProduces ammoniaAfter nitrogen fixation, some ammonia is converted toAmmoniumNitrificationBacteria in soil converts ammonia (NH3) and ammonium (NH4) into nitrate ionsAssimilationNitrogen is converted into proteins and nucleic acidsAmmonificationDead organic matter converted into ammoniaDenitrificationAmmonium converted back into airPhosphorus cycle does not exist is what state?GaseousWhich cycle is the slowest?Phosphorus cycleWhere does phosphorus cycle take place?Cycles through water, crust, and organismsPhosphorus cycle can make good what?FertilizerAquifersHydrolic cycle, large reservoirs of water that are self cleaningGross Primary ProductivityRate at which an ecosystem's producers convert solar energy into chemical energy in the form of biomassNet Primary ProductivityRate at which producers use photosynthesis to produce and store chemical energy minus the rate producers use energy in cellular respiration10% rule10% of the energy is transferred from one level to the next, 90% is lost to atmosphere as heatFood chainMovement of energy from one trophic level to the nextFood webRelationships of many chains shown in oneBiodiversityVariety of the earth's species, genetic variety they contain, the ecosystem where they live, and processes like energy flow and nutrient cyclingIsland BiogeographyIslands farther away from the mainland and smaller tend to have species that go extinct faster, islands considered biodiversity hotspotsRange of toleranceRange of physical and chemical boundaries that have to be maintained for populations of a specific species to stay alive and growDisruptions to EcosystemsHIPPCO::: Habitat destruction Invasive species Population growth Pollution Climate change OverexploitationPrimary SuccessionNo soilSecondary SuccessionSoil is presentLogistic GrowthRapid exponential growth followed by steady decrease to reach the carrying capacityOvershootExceeds carrying capacityIntrinsic rate of increaseRate at which the population of a species would grow if it had unlimited resourcesTotal Fertility RateThe average number of children born to a woman during her childbearing years. Key factor in projecting the populationPopulation Change Formula(births + immigration) - (deaths + emigration) / total populationRule of 70 Formula70/% growth rateRate of change formula(New-old)/oldTectonic plates make up the EarthsCrustDivergent BoundaryTwo oceanic plates are separating and molten rock flows up to fill gaps, forms mid-oceanic ridges, rifts, and valleysConvergent BoundaryTwo plates are colliding with one another, forms volcanoes trenches and island arcsTransform FaultPlates slide against one anotherSoil is formed fromweathered rockSoil composition45% mineral particles, 5% organic (humus, litter, dung, dead plant matter), 25% water, 25% airO horizonRich plant leaf litter, organic matterA HorizonContains humus, topsoil, plants spread roots to absorb nutrientsC HorizonBroken down rockR HorizonBedrockParts of soil (largest to smallest)Sand, silt, clayTroposphereWe live in this section, weather occurs hereStratosphereContains good ozone, protection from UV radiaionMesophereWhere meteors burn upThermosphereNorthern lightsExosphereFarthest sphere that borders spaceGeosphereEarth's intensely hot core, mantle, crust, inner core is liquid nickelBiosphereThe part of Earth where life existsHydrosphereAll the water at and near the surface of the earth, 97% of which is in oceansFormation of convection currentsGlobal patterns of air movement initiated by unequal heating of EarthHadley CellConvection Currents that cycle between the equator, 30 degrees North and SouthCoriolis effectThe effect of Earth's rotation on the direction of winds and currentsEl ninoBrings warm water from west to east and cold water has upwelling; Decrease in fishing economyLa ninaCools surface and restores upwellingRainshadow effectMoist air blowing inland reaches mountains- cools and expands as it rises, and dumps moisture on the windward side. Leeward side has a dry air mass that draws moisture out of plants and soil- often forms deserts