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Chemistry Final Review
Terms in this set (50)
Describe the state of a solid in terms of definite volume and definite shape
definite volume, definite shape
Describe the state of a liquid in terms of definite volume and definite shape
definite volume, indefinite shape
Describe the state of a gas in terms of definite volume and definite shape
indefinite volume, indefinite shape
Write the formula for density
A measure of the quantity of matter of an object is its
A measure of the gravitational pull on matter is
Equivalent to 1cm^3 is
Calculate the density of an object that has a mass of 5.00g and a volume of 20.0 cm^3. Write your answer with the appropriate number of significant figures
d= 5.00/20.0 =.250g/cm^3
A testable statement used for making predictions and carrying out experiments is
An explanation of a well-tested body of facts or observed natural phenomena is a
How many significant figures are in the measurement 700?
How many significant figures are in the measurement 0.014?
How many significant figures are in the measurement 0.0003490?
How many significant figures are in the measurement 14.00?
Write the rule for reporting the answer with correct significant figures to a multiplication or division problem
The answer must have no more significant figures than there are in the measurement having the fewest significant figures
Write the rule for reporting the answer with correct significant figures to an addition or subtraction problem
The answer must have the same number of digits to the right of the decimal as the measurement in the problem having the fewest digits to the right of the decimal point- match the fewest decimal points
Write the measurement 0.000000650 kg in scientific notation with the correct significant figures
Write the measurement 340,000,000 cm in scientific notation with the correct significant figures
Define the law of multiple proportions and give an example
If 2 or more compounds are composed of the same 2 elements, then the ratio of their masses is always in small whole numbers (CO and CO_2)
Write the law of conservation of mass
Mass can neither be created or destroyed
Write the law of definite proportions
A given chemical compound always contains the same elements in the exact same proportions by mass regardless of the size or source of the compound
List the 5 postulates of Dalton's atomic theory
1.All matter is composed of atoms
2. Atoms of the same element are identical in size mass
3. Atoms cannot be subdivided created
4. Atoms combine in whole number rations to form compounds
5.In reactions, atoms are separated, combined, or rearranged
What is average atomic mass? (how is it calculated and where is it found)
Weighted average of all the naturally occurring isotopes of an element and its recorded on the periodic table
What is the standard nuclide that relative atomic masses are based on?
Experiments with cathode rays led to the discovery of the
Performed the famous gold foil experiment
The gold foil experiment led to the discovery of the
Describe the nucleus- what makes it up, what holds the particles together, how its size compares the size of the entire atom
Densely packed protons and neutrons held together by strong nuclear forces. It's extremely small compared to the entire atom, but holds most of the atoms masss
What are isotopes? What make isotopes of an element the same? What makes isotopes of an element different?
Isotopes are atoms of the same elements with the same number of protons- different number of neutrons
An aluminium isotopes consists of 13 protons, 13 electrons, and 14 neutrons. Its atomic number is ______, and its mass number is _____
If electrons in an atom have their lowest possible energies, the atom is said to be in _______ state
When light is passed through a prism, what will you see?
The colors that make up the light, separated
Explain how a colored light is produced (such as in a flame test) in terms of electrons and energy
When an atom absorbs energy its electrons move to higher every levels, the electrons immediately drop back down to lower energy levels, and emit energy in the form of light
The distance between two successive peaks on a wave is
Write the quantum number and the name of each of the four quantum numbers
l- Angular momentum
Write the 4 sub-levels. How many orbitals can each sub-level hold? How many electrons can each sub-level hold?
s- 1 -2
p- 3- 6
d- 5- 10
f- 7- 14
States that orbitals of equal energy are each occupied by one electron before any orbital is occupied by a second electron
States that an electron occupies the lowest every orbital that can receive it
States that no two electrons in the same atom can have the same four quantum numbers
Pauli Exclusion principle
A horizontal row on the periodic table is called a
A vertical column on the Periodic Table is called a ____ or ____
The idea of arranging the elements in a periodic table according to their chemical and physical properties is attributed to which scientist?
The idea of arranging the elements in a periodic table according to their increasing atomic number was attributed to which scientist?
Why is hydrogen's placement on the periodic table unique?
It does not share properties with its group
For elements in the p-block, the number of valence electrons is equal to the group number
The most reactive group of nonmetals are the ______, found in group ___
The most reactive group of metals are the ______, found in group ____
Alkali metals, 1
What is the reason for the high reactivity of the two groups; 17 and 1
They both only have 1 valence electron to lose or gain to remain stable
A measure of the ability of an atom in a chemical compound to attract from another atom in the compound is called
The electrons that are available to be lost, gained, or shared in the formation of chemical compounds are called
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