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Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

- a virus that causes progressive destruction of the humanimmune system

HIV symptoms

- fever, sore throat, skin rash(Kaposi's sarcoma), diarrhea, vomiting, pancytopenia, lymphadenopathy

HIV and HTLV transmission

- sexual contact, contaminated blood/ blood products, IV drug abuse, mother to child(in utero), and needle sticks(healthcare workers)

HIV high-risk groups

- homosexual males, bisexual males, IV drug users, transfusion recdipients

3 HIV classifications

- Asymptomatic, Symptomatic, and AIDS- indicator conditions

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)

- is a disease caused by HIV, characterized by an opportunistic secondary infection(s). Patient is immunocompromised and secondary infections cause death.

Cytomegalovirus (CMV)

- common viral pathogen, 50% of adults have contracted it; usually asymptomatic or subclinical. Common cause of congenital defects in infants, pathogenic to immunocompromised patients. affects the lymphocytes and the bone marrow.

CMV symptoms (infants and immunocompromised)

- rash, enlarged liver and spleen. hearing loss and mental retardation in infants.

CMV diagnosis

- culture, serology (look for antibody in serum), DNA probes, Histology

Respriatory Syncytial Virus (RSV)

- common viral pathogen, affects almost 100% of population by age four, very contagious; causes localized infection of respiratory tract. frequent cause of fatal acute respiratory infections in infants and elderly. Occurs in winter months.

RSV symptoms

- directly attacks bronchi of lungs and causes necrosis (tissue death; plugs of mucus and dead tissue block airways.

RSV and VZV transmission

- inhalation (respiratory), contaminated formites (inanimate objects), improper handwashing.

RSV diagnosis

- Serology (direct antigen testing) and culture

Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV)

- causative agent of chickenpox, recurrent cases are called herpes zoster or shingles and usually occur in adults, very contagious.

VZV symptoms

- fever, rash with pustules, malaise, localized pain at pustule sites

VZV diagnosis

- serology (direct antibody testing) and culture

Human T-cell Leukemia Virus (HTLV)

- causes cancer after a latent period of up to 30 years causing uncontrolled cell growth and/or mutation, causative agent of adult acute T-cell lymphocytic leukemia

HTLV symptoms

- usually asymptomatic, elevated white blood cell count and skin lesions

HTLV diagnosis

- Serology (serum antigen testing) and Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

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