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Medical Terminology - week 3

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ankyl/o
crooked, bent, or stiff
arthr/o
joint
chondr/o
cartlidge
cost/o
ribs
desis
surgical fixation of a joint or bone
kyph/o
hump
lord/o
bent backward
lysis
loosening or setting free
myel/o
bone marrow or spinal cord
ose/e, oss/i, ost/o, oste/o
bone
scoli/o
curved, bent
spondyl/o
vertebrae
synovi/o, snyov/o
synovial membrane
um
noun ending
crani
skull
periosteum
tough, fibrous tissue that forms the outermost covering of bone
compact bone
dense, hard, and very strong bone that forms the protective outer layer of bones
spongy bone
lighter, and not as strong, as compact bone. This type of bone is commonly found in the ends and inner portions of long bones such as the femur. Red bone marrow is located within this spongy bone
medullary cavity
located in the shaft of a ong bone and is surrounded by compact bone - medullary means pertaining to the inner section
red bone marrow
located within the spongy bone, is hemopoietic tissue that manufactures red blood cells, hemoglobin, white blood cells, and thrombocytes
hemopoietic
means pertaining to the formation of blood cells. - hemo/o means blood, and poietic means pertaining to formation - also known as hematopoietic
yellow bone marrow
functions as a fat storage area, is composed chiefly of fat cells and is located in the medullary cavity
cartlidge
smooth, rubbery, blue-white connective tissue that acts as a shock absorber between bones. Cartlidge, which is more elastic than bone, also makes up the flexible parts of the skeleton such as the outer ear and the tip of the nose
articular cartlidge
covers the surface of bones where they come together to form joints. This cartlidge makes smooth joint movement possible and protects the bones from rubbing against each other.
meniscus
the curved fibrous cartlidge found in some joints, such as the knee and the temporomandibular joint of the jaw
diaphysis
the shaft of a long bone
epiphysis
curved fibrous cartlidge found in some joints, such as the knee and the temporomandibular joint of the jaw
foramen
an opening in a bone through which blood vessels, nerves, and ligaments pass
process
a normal projection on the surface of a bone that serves as an attachment for muscles and tendons
joints
are also known as articulations, are the place of union between two or more bones. Joints are classified according to either their construction or based on the degree of movement they allow
fibrous joints
consisting of inflexible layers of dense connective tissue, hold the bones tightly toether. In adults, these joints, which are also known as the sutures, do not allow any movement. In newborns and very young children, some fibrous joints are movable before they have solidified
fontanelles
also known as the soft spot, are normally present on the skull of a newborn. These flexible soft spots facilitate the passage of the infant through the birth canal. They also allow for the growth of the skull during the first years.
skelatal system
consists of the bones, bone marrow, cartlidge, joints, ligaments, synovial membrance, synovial fluid, and bursa
bone
is the form of connective tissue that is the second hardest tissue in the human body. Only dental enamel is harder than bone
axial skeleton
protects the major organs of the nervous, respiratory, and circulatory systems. Axial means pertaining to an axis, which is an imaginary line that runs lengthwise through the center of the body. It also consists of 80 bones including those of the skull, the ribs, sternum, and thoracic vertebrade of the thoracic cavity, and the other vertebrae of the spinal column
appendicular skeleton
makes body movement possible and also protects the organs of digestion, excretion, and reproduction. The term appendicular means referring to an appendage. An appandage is anything that is attached to a major part of the body. The appendicular skeleton consists of 120 bones that are organized into the upper extremeties (shoulders, arms, forearms, wrists, and hands), and the lower extremeties (hips, thighs, legs, ankles, and feet).
skull
consists of the eight bones that form the cranium, 14 bones that form the face, and six bones in the middle ear
cranium
concists of 8 bones that form the cranium, 14 bones that form the face, and 6 bones in the middle ar
frontal bone
forms the forehead
parietal bones
form most of the roof and upper sides of the cranium
occipital bone
forms the posterior floor and walls of the cranium
temporal bone
forms the sides and base of the cranium
sphenoid bone
forms part of the base of the skull and parts of the floor and sides of the orbit
orbit
bony socket that surrounds and protects the eyeball
ethmoid bone
forms part of the posterior portion of the nose, the orbit, and the floor of the cranium
auditory ossicles
six tiny bones of the middle ear
external auditory meatus
located in the temporal bone on each side of the skull
face
made up of 14 bones
nasal bones
form the upper part of the bridge of the nose (2 bones)
zygomatic bones
also known as the cheekbones, articulate with the frontal bone (forehead) (2 bones)
maxillary bones
also known as the maxillae, form most of the upper jaw (2 bones)
palatine bones
form part of the hard palate of the mouth and the floor of the nose (2 bones)
lacrimal bones
make up part of the orbit at the inner angle of the eye
inferior conchae
thin, scroll-like bones that form part of the interior of the nose
vomer bone
form the base for the nasal septum. The nasal septum is the cartilage wall that divides the two nasal cavities
mandible
also known as the jawbone, is the only movable bone on the skull. The mandible is attached to the skull of the temporomandibular joint, which is known as TMJ
thoracic cavity
also known as the rib cage, is the bony structure that protects the heart and lungs. It consists of the ribs, sternum, and upper portion of the spinal column extending from the neck to the diaphragm, not including the arms
ribs
the 12 pairs of ribs, which are also known as costals, attach posteriorly to the thoracic vertebrae
true ribs
the first 7 pairs of ribs - are attached anteriorly to the sternum
false ribs
second set of 3 ribs, are attached anteriorly to the sternum
floating ribs
last 2 sets of ribs, are only attached posteriorly
sternum
also known as the breastbone, forms the middle of the front of the rib cage and is divided into three parts
manubrium
the bony structures that forms the upper portion of the sternum
body of the sternum
the bony structure that forms the middle portion of the sternum
xiphoid process
the structure made of cartliage that forms the lower portion of the sternum
pectoral girdle
supports the arms and hands; this is also known as the shoulder girdle. The term girdle means a structure that encircles the body
clavicle
also known as the collar bone, is a slender bone that connects the manubrium of the sternum to the scapula
scapula
also known as the shoulder blade
acromion
an extension of the scapula that forms the high point of the shoulder
humerus
the bone of the upper arm
radius
the smaller and shorter bone in the forearm. The radius runs up the thumb side of the forearm
ulna
the larger and longer bone of the forearm. The proximal end of the ulna articulates with the distal end of the humerous to form the elbow
olecranon process
commonly known as the funny bone, is a large projection of the upper end of the ulna
carpals
the eight carpals are the bones that form the wrist. These bones form the carpal tunnel, a narrow bony passage through which passes the median nerve and the tendons of the fingers
metacarpals
the five bones that form the palms of the hand
phalanges
the 14 bones of the fingers. The bones of the toes are also known as phalanges Each of the four fingers has three bones. These are the distal (outermost), middle, and proximal (nearest the hand) phalanges
spinal column
also known as the vertebral column supports the heead and body; and protects the spinal cord. This structure consists of 26 vertebrae. A vertebrae is a single segment of the spinal coluymn. Vertebral means pertaining to the vertebrae
vertebrae
bony structures units of the spinal column
cervical vertebrae
the first set of 7 vertebrae that form the neck. They are also known as C1 through C7
thoracic vertebrae
make up the second set of 12 vertebrae. They form the outward curve of the spine and are known as T1 through T12
lumbar vertebrae
make up the third set of 5 vertebrae and form the inward curve of the lower spine. They are known as L1 through L5. The lumbar vertebrae are the largest and strongest of the vertebrae and bear most of the body's weight. Lumbar means relating to the part of the back and sides between the ribs and the pelvis