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crooked, bent, or stiff








surgical fixation of a joint or bone




bent backward


loosening or setting free


bone marrow or spinal cord

ose/e, oss/i, ost/o, oste/o



curved, bent



synovi/o, snyov/o

synovial membrane


noun ending




tough, fibrous tissue that forms the outermost covering of bone

compact bone

dense, hard, and very strong bone that forms the protective outer layer of bones

spongy bone

lighter, and not as strong, as compact bone. This type of bone is commonly found in the ends and inner portions of long bones such as the femur. Red bone marrow is located within this spongy bone

medullary cavity

located in the shaft of a ong bone and is surrounded by compact bone - medullary means pertaining to the inner section

red bone marrow

located within the spongy bone, is hemopoietic tissue that manufactures red blood cells, hemoglobin, white blood cells, and thrombocytes


means pertaining to the formation of blood cells. - hemo/o means blood, and poietic means pertaining to formation - also known as hematopoietic

yellow bone marrow

functions as a fat storage area, is composed chiefly of fat cells and is located in the medullary cavity


smooth, rubbery, blue-white connective tissue that acts as a shock absorber between bones. Cartlidge, which is more elastic than bone, also makes up the flexible parts of the skeleton such as the outer ear and the tip of the nose

articular cartlidge

covers the surface of bones where they come together to form joints. This cartlidge makes smooth joint movement possible and protects the bones from rubbing against each other.


the curved fibrous cartlidge found in some joints, such as the knee and the temporomandibular joint of the jaw


the shaft of a long bone


curved fibrous cartlidge found in some joints, such as the knee and the temporomandibular joint of the jaw


an opening in a bone through which blood vessels, nerves, and ligaments pass


a normal projection on the surface of a bone that serves as an attachment for muscles and tendons


are also known as articulations, are the place of union between two or more bones. Joints are classified according to either their construction or based on the degree of movement they allow

fibrous joints

consisting of inflexible layers of dense connective tissue, hold the bones tightly toether. In adults, these joints, which are also known as the sutures, do not allow any movement. In newborns and very young children, some fibrous joints are movable before they have solidified


also known as the soft spot, are normally present on the skull of a newborn. These flexible soft spots facilitate the passage of the infant through the birth canal. They also allow for the growth of the skull during the first years.

skelatal system

consists of the bones, bone marrow, cartlidge, joints, ligaments, synovial membrance, synovial fluid, and bursa


is the form of connective tissue that is the second hardest tissue in the human body. Only dental enamel is harder than bone

axial skeleton

protects the major organs of the nervous, respiratory, and circulatory systems. Axial means pertaining to an axis, which is an imaginary line that runs lengthwise through the center of the body. It also consists of 80 bones including those of the skull, the ribs, sternum, and thoracic vertebrade of the thoracic cavity, and the other vertebrae of the spinal column

appendicular skeleton

makes body movement possible and also protects the organs of digestion, excretion, and reproduction. The term appendicular means referring to an appendage. An appandage is anything that is attached to a major part of the body. The appendicular skeleton consists of 120 bones that are organized into the upper extremeties (shoulders, arms, forearms, wrists, and hands), and the lower extremeties (hips, thighs, legs, ankles, and feet).


consists of the eight bones that form the cranium, 14 bones that form the face, and six bones in the middle ear


concists of 8 bones that form the cranium, 14 bones that form the face, and 6 bones in the middle ar

frontal bone

forms the forehead

parietal bones

form most of the roof and upper sides of the cranium

occipital bone

forms the posterior floor and walls of the cranium

temporal bone

forms the sides and base of the cranium

sphenoid bone

forms part of the base of the skull and parts of the floor and sides of the orbit


bony socket that surrounds and protects the eyeball

ethmoid bone

forms part of the posterior portion of the nose, the orbit, and the floor of the cranium

auditory ossicles

six tiny bones of the middle ear

external auditory meatus

located in the temporal bone on each side of the skull


made up of 14 bones

nasal bones

form the upper part of the bridge of the nose (2 bones)

zygomatic bones

also known as the cheekbones, articulate with the frontal bone (forehead) (2 bones)

maxillary bones

also known as the maxillae, form most of the upper jaw (2 bones)

palatine bones

form part of the hard palate of the mouth and the floor of the nose (2 bones)

lacrimal bones

make up part of the orbit at the inner angle of the eye

inferior conchae

thin, scroll-like bones that form part of the interior of the nose

vomer bone

form the base for the nasal septum. The nasal septum is the cartilage wall that divides the two nasal cavities


also known as the jawbone, is the only movable bone on the skull. The mandible is attached to the skull of the temporomandibular joint, which is known as TMJ

thoracic cavity

also known as the rib cage, is the bony structure that protects the heart and lungs. It consists of the ribs, sternum, and upper portion of the spinal column extending from the neck to the diaphragm, not including the arms


the 12 pairs of ribs, which are also known as costals, attach posteriorly to the thoracic vertebrae

true ribs

the first 7 pairs of ribs - are attached anteriorly to the sternum

false ribs

second set of 3 ribs, are attached anteriorly to the sternum

floating ribs

last 2 sets of ribs, are only attached posteriorly


also known as the breastbone, forms the middle of the front of the rib cage and is divided into three parts


the bony structures that forms the upper portion of the sternum

body of the sternum

the bony structure that forms the middle portion of the sternum

xiphoid process

the structure made of cartliage that forms the lower portion of the sternum

pectoral girdle

supports the arms and hands; this is also known as the shoulder girdle. The term girdle means a structure that encircles the body


also known as the collar bone, is a slender bone that connects the manubrium of the sternum to the scapula


also known as the shoulder blade


an extension of the scapula that forms the high point of the shoulder


the bone of the upper arm


the smaller and shorter bone in the forearm. The radius runs up the thumb side of the forearm


the larger and longer bone of the forearm. The proximal end of the ulna articulates with the distal end of the humerous to form the elbow

olecranon process

commonly known as the funny bone, is a large projection of the upper end of the ulna


the eight carpals are the bones that form the wrist. These bones form the carpal tunnel, a narrow bony passage through which passes the median nerve and the tendons of the fingers


the five bones that form the palms of the hand


the 14 bones of the fingers. The bones of the toes are also known as phalanges Each of the four fingers has three bones. These are the distal (outermost), middle, and proximal (nearest the hand) phalanges

spinal column

also known as the vertebral column supports the heead and body; and protects the spinal cord. This structure consists of 26 vertebrae. A vertebrae is a single segment of the spinal coluymn. Vertebral means pertaining to the vertebrae


bony structures units of the spinal column

cervical vertebrae

the first set of 7 vertebrae that form the neck. They are also known as C1 through C7

thoracic vertebrae

make up the second set of 12 vertebrae. They form the outward curve of the spine and are known as T1 through T12

lumbar vertebrae

make up the third set of 5 vertebrae and form the inward curve of the lower spine. They are known as L1 through L5. The lumbar vertebrae are the largest and strongest of the vertebrae and bear most of the body's weight. Lumbar means relating to the part of the back and sides between the ribs and the pelvis

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