The number of years of "vigorous, healthy life" an individual born in a particular year can expect
adult onset diabetes
too little insulin cells or cells insensitive to insulin. results from genetics or abdominal fat. long term damage to circulatory system, eyes, kidneys, nerves
A structural change in the cerebral cortex associated with Alzheimer's Disease, in which dense deposits of a deteriorated protein called amyloid develop, surrounded by clumps of dead nerve and glial cells
any item, piece of equipment, or product system, whether acquired commercially off the shelf, modified, or customized that is used to increase, maintain, or improve functional capabilities of individuals with disabilities
An adaptive immune response directed at an antigenic component of the individual's own body.
average life expectancy
The number of years the average newborn of a particular population group is likely to live. In humans, this age has tended to increase over time, primarily because fewer children die in infancy
eye disease in which the lens becomes covered in an opaque film that affects sight, eventually causing total blindness.
a series of strokes leaves areas of dead brain cells, producing step-by-step degeneration of mental ability, with each step occurring abruptly after a stroke
compression of morbidity
A limiting of the time a person spends ill or infirm, accomplished by postponing illness and, once morbidity occurs, reducing the amount of time that remains before death occurs.
a slowly progressive decline in mental abilities, including memory, thinking, and judgment, that is often accompanied by personality changes
How well a person functions in a physical and social environment in comparisno with others of the same chronological age
life expectancy crossover
age-related reversal in life expectancy of sectors of the population. (ex.: members of ethnic minorities who survive to age 85 live longer than members of the white majority.) (443)
breakdown or thinning of the tissues in the macula, resulting in partial or complete loss of central vision
tangled bundles of fibers seen in the cytoplasm of abnormal neurons in those areas of the brain (hippocampus, cerebral cortex) most affected by Alzheimer's disease.
progressive, degenerative joint disease characterized by loss of articular cartilage and hypertrophy of bone at articular surfaces
The universal and irreversible physical changes that occur to all living creatures as they grow older
This type of memory is the retention of experiences that occurred during earlier periods of life (Things we did when we were kids)
A chronic systemic disease characterized by inflammation of the joints, stiffness, pain, and swelling that results in crippling deformities
changes in physical and cognitive functioning that are due to illness, health habits, and other individual differences, but which are not due to increased age itself and are not inevitable
selective optimization with comprehension
narrowing ones goals to select personally valued activities, then optimize returns from diminishing energy. they also find new ways to compensate for losses
a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings
breadth and depth of practical knowledge and the ability to reflect on and apply that knowledge in ways that make life more bearable and worthwhile; emotional maturity, including the ability to listen, evaluate, and give advice.
the point reached by young adults in which intelligence is applied to specific situations involving the attainment of long-term goals regarding careers, family, and social contributions
according to Schale, the first stage of cognitive development, encompassing all of childhood and adolescence, in which the main developmental task is to acquire information.
the most common form of CVD; a disease characterized by plaques along the inner walls of the arteries.
biological aging, senescence
genetically influence declines in the function organs and systems that are universal in all members of our species
body mass index
Numerical value found by dividing an individual's mass in kg by the (height in m)2 and used to assess if the individual is underweight, acceptable weight, overweight or obese.
a disease in which abnormal cells multiply out of control, spread into surrounding tissues and other body parts, and disrupt normal functioning of one or more organs
A feature of thought and problem solving that includes the tendency to generate or recognize ideas considered to be high-quality, original, novel, and appropriate.
dividing information, values, and authority into right and wrong, good and bad, we and they
the period in the middle adulthood when people take a broader perspective than earlier, including concerns about the world
in early and middle childhood, children gain insight into career options by fantasizing about theme
a common disorder in which blood pressure remains abnormally high (a reading of 140/90 mm Hg or greater)
post conventional level
kohlberg's highest level of moral development, in which moral actions are judged on the basis of a personal code of ethics that is general and abstract and that may not agree with societal norms ex: individuals lives are more important than society's law against stealing
post formal operational thought
fifth stage of cognitive development proposed by neo-Piagetians that is characterized by three features: adults come to realize that knowledge is not absolute but relativistic, contradiction is inherent in life, and they must find some encompassing whole by which to organize their experience
a structural advance in which logic becomes a tool for solving real world problems
refers to an array of physical and psychological symptoms that usually appear six to ten days prior to menstruation. the most common are abdominal cramps, fluid retention, diarrhea, tender breasts, backache, headache, fatigue, tension, irritability and depression
farsightedness resulting from a reduced ability to focus caused by loss of elasticity of the crystalline lens with age
by late teens and early twenties, with the economic and practical realities of adulthood just around the corner, young people start to narrow their options. a first step is exploration-gathering more information about possibilites that blend with their personal characteristics. in the final phase, crystallization, they focus on a general vocational category and experiment for a time before settling on a single occupation
the period of late adulthood during which the focus is on tasks that have personal meaning
instead of choosing between opposing views, they try to formulate a more satisfying perspective that synthesizes contradictions
Stage of middle adulthood concerned with real-life problems and with being in charge of self and others.
between the ages 11 and 16, adolescents think about careers in more complex ways,at first in terms of their interests, and soon- as they become more aware of personal and educational requirements for different vocations- in terms of their abilities and values
effects radiation exposure are additive and unrepaired damage accumuluates in tissues, lead to health problems, cancer, cataracts, birth defects
cross linkage theory of aging
over time, protein fibers that make up the body's connective tissue forms bonds, or links with one another. when these normally separate fibers cross link, tissue becomes less elastic, leading to many negative outcomes
theories of aging
environmental-external and internal, aging is a result of accumulation of random injuries and events (wear and tear); genetic-aging is a result of genetically controlled developmental program (a built in self destruction program); a combination of the two explain aging the best-aging may be predetermined but environmental conditions can speed it up or slow it down
Contemporary life-events approach
Emphasizes that how a life event influences the individual's development depends not only on the life event, but also on meditating factors., the individual's adaptation to the life event, the life-stage context, and the sociohistorical context.
The timetable according to which individuals are expected to accomplish life's tasks, such as getting married, having children, or establishing themselves in a career.
Big Five facts of personality
Emotional stability (neuroticism), extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness.
empty next syndrome
A decrease in marital satisfaction after children leave home, because parents derive considerable satisfaction from their children.
In this type of classroom, the teacher is the sole authority for knowledge, rules, and decision making and does most of the talking.
In this type of classroom, children are encouraged to construct their own knowledge.
In this type of classroom, children participate in a wide range of challenging activities with teachers and peers, with whom they jointly construct understandings.
A teacher and two to four students form a collaborative group and take turns leading dialogues on the content of a text passage.
Educational self-fulfilling prophecies
Children may adopt teachers' positive or negative views and start to live up to them.
Students with learning difficulties are placed in regular classrooms for part of the school day, a practice designed to prepare them for participation in society.
By middle childhood, obese children report more emotional, social, and school difficulties and display more behavior problems than their normal-weight peers.
Boys, African-American children, and children who were born underweight, whose parents smoke, or who live in poverty are at greatest risk for asthma.
Children experience a somewhat lower rate of illness during the first two years of elementary school than later.
Both body growth and more efficient information processing play a role in improved motor performance in school-age children.
Research indicates that participation in organized sports contributes to low self-esteem for most children.
Mild mental retardation
Student with IQs between 55 and 70 who show problems in adaptive behavior, or skills of everyday living.
Children who have great difficulty with one or more aspects of learning, usually reading.
The ability to produce work that is original yet appropriate--something others have not thought of that is useful in some way.
The generation of multiple and unusual possibilities when faced with a task or problem.
Thinking that involves arriving at a single correct answer and is emphasized on intelligence tests.
As in early childhood, an adult must be present for a school-age child to feel pride or guilt.
An appreciation of mixed emotions helps children realize that people's expressions may not reflect their true feelings.
In problem-centered coping, children appraise the situation as changeable, identify the difficulty, and decide what to do about it.
When outcomes are beyond their control (e.g., after receiving a bad grade), school-age children opt for a distraction or try to redefine the situation.
Although emotionally well-regulated children are upbeat in mood, they impulsively unleash negative emotion.
Not until age 11 can children "step into another person's shoes" and reflect on how that person might regard their own thoughts, feelings, and behavior.
Research shows that social experiences actually have little impact on children's perspective talking.
In the sequence of pubertal events, the growth spurt occurs at approximately the same age for both boys and girls.
Most researchers agree that high sex hormone levels are primarily responsible for adolescent moodiness.
Physchological distancing between parents and children is normal during adolescence, and most parent-child conflict is mild.
Compared with school-aged children, teenagers place less emphasis on social virtues, such as being friendly, considerate, kind, and cooperative.
In a study of adolescents in 13 industrialized nations, most were pessimistic about the future.
Authoritarian parenting predicts high self-esteem in adolescence, just as it did in childhood.
Identity development often varies across identity domains, such as sexual orientation, vocation, and religious and political values.
Young people in long-term foreclosure and diffusion are more likely to view school and work as feasible avenues for realizing their aspirations and are more advanced in moral reasoning.
Forclosed teenagers usually have close bonds with parents but lack opportunities for healthy separation.
Minority youths often feel caught between the standards of the larger society and those of their culture of origin.
Morality is externally controlled: Behaviors that result in punishment are viewd as bad, and those that lead to rewards are seen as good.
Individuals believe that actively maintaining the current social system ensures positive relationships and social order.
Postconventional--Principle Led level
Individuals define morality in terms of abstract principles and values that apply to all situations and societies.
Dividing information, values, and authority into right and wrong, good and bad, we and they.
Commitment within relativistic thinking
Instead of choosing between opposing views, the most mature individuals try to formulate a more satisfying perspective that synthesizes contradictions.
A structural advance in which logic becomes a tool for solving real-world problems.
Awareness and coordination of positive and negative feelings into a complex, organized structure.
People with a sence of isolation tend to compete rather than cooperate, are not accepting of differences, and are easily threatened when others get too close.
In Levinson's theory, the life structure has little to do with one's happiness and psychological well-being.
Most career-oriented women display "split dreams" in which both marriage and career are prominent.
Both Vaillant and Levinson agree that quality of relationships with important people shape the life course.
According to Vaillant, during their forties, men focus on career consolidation and individual achievement.
A major source of personality change in adulthood is conformity to or departure from the social clock.
Posed moral dilemmas to children, adolescents, and adults
Asked them what they would do in the situation
More importantly - asked why they would do it
Rationales were different; patterns emerged
Self-Centered: What's in it for me?
Stage 1 - concern is to avoid punishment (stick)
Stage 2 - concern is to get rewards (carrot)
Other-centered: I look to others to figure out what's right/wrong or good/bad
Stage 3 - concern is to get approval from people close to you (peer pressure)
Stage 4 - concern is to obey laws/rules (blind obedience)
Society-centered: prioritizes what's good for society
Stage 5 - concern is that rules/laws are flexible, and they should be changed to make them more fair (social contact)
Stage 6 - unwavering concern for following universal ethical principles that should guide all people in all situations (MLK)
Moral Judgment May Be Influenced By...
Hardly anyone reached Stages 5 & 6
Survey results in more people at Stages 5 & 6 (recognition task) than in interviews (production task)
Abstract dilemmas - people reason differently in real-life dilemmas
Managerial Moral Judgment Test - Loviscky, Trevino & Jacobs
Possibly Culture & Gender, too
Less personal involvement - more thinking
More personal involvement - more emotion
Anterior cingulate; part of frontal lobe
Moral judgment is more than thinking - it is also feeling
Socialization Process consists of 8 stages
Each stage is represented by a "psychosocial crisis"
Failure to successfully resolve the crisis in a stage results in...
reduced ability to complete further stages & results in less healthy sense of self
Stages can be resolved successfully at a later time
Crisis: Trust vs. Mistrust
Infants learn to trust that their needs will be met by caregivers
Crisis: Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt
Toddlers develop a greater sense of personal control
Early Childhood (3-5)
Crisis: Initiative vs. Guilt
Preschool children learn to initiate tasks, carry out plans, and enjoy their attempts
Middle Childhood (6-12)
Crisis: Industry vs. Inferiority
Elementary school age children learn about taking pride in their accomplishments
Adolescence Stage (teens into 20s)
Crisis: Identity vs. Role Confusion
Adolescents refine their sense of self by:
and then integrating them to form their identity
Identity has multiple components, such as:
James Marcia's "Search for Identity" Model
Exploration & Commitment are important
Exploration - time of upheaval when old values & ideas are being reconsidered
Commitment - taking on a role
no exploration, but committed to role
- unquestioned adoption of parental or societal values
exploration in progress, no commitment made
- actively trying to resolve identity crisis
exploration completed & commitments made
- successful achievement of a sense of identity
- only 20% of participants were in this category at age 18
- only 55% by age 24
Early Adulthood (20s-30s)
Crisis: intimacy vs. Isolation
Young adults open themselves to another person & form close relationships
Middle Adulthood (40s-early 60s)
Crisis: Generativity vs. Stagnation
Middle-aged adults do things for others and make the world a better place
Late Adulthood (65+)
Crisis: Integrity vs. Despair
Older adults reflect back on their own lives and evaluating its meaning
Marriage and Family
Trial marriage research: Does living together before getting married reduce the risk of divorce?
Premarital cohabitation is associated with a higher risk of subsequent divorce
Caution: based on correlational research
*other 3rd variables that may impact it
Empty Nest Syndrome
Do parents go through a painful time of separation when the last child leaves home?
In fact, higher marital satisfaction
most problems in marriage during childbearing, then early marriage, then empty nest
Is there a time of struggle, regret, etc. in 40's?
Research: unhappiness, job dissatisfaction, marital dissatisfaction, divorce, anxiety, divorce, etc.
No increase during 40's
Example: 10,000 men & women stable through 40's
Facing Aging and Death
Terminally ill patients often experienced 5 stages as they coped with impending death
*No one "normal" or "correct" way to face death
least amount of conformity of how or in what time or what order people go through these stages
A period of rapid physical involving hormonal and bodily changes that occurs mainly during early adolescence
Powerful chemical substances secreted by the endocrine glands and carried through the body by the bloodstream.
An important endocrine gland that controls growth and regulates other glands, including the gonads
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs)
Infections that are contracted primarily through sexual contact, including oral-genital and anal-genital contact
An eating disorder that involves the relentless pursuit of thinness through starvation
An eating disorder in which the individual consistently follows a binge-and-purge pattern.
Piaget's formal operational concept that adolescents have the cognitive ability to develop hypotheses, or best guesses, about ways to solve problems, such as an algebraic equation
Involves adolescents' belief that others are as interested in them as they themselves are, as well as attention-getting behavior motivated by a desire to be noticed, visible, and "on stage"
The part of adolescent egocentrism that involves an adolescent's sense of uniqueness and invincibility (or invulnerability)
The circumstance of moving from the top position in elementary school to the lowest position in the middle of junior high school