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Bio Ch. 22
Terms in this set (33)
What defines a plant?
Eukaryotic; multicellular; cell wall of cellulose; carry out photosynthesis using chloropyll A and B; alternation of generations; photoautotrophic
2. What things do all plants need to survive?
sunlight, movement water or minerals; gas exchange (Oxygen and Co2)
diploid; produces haploid spores
haploid; produces gametes that fuse to form zygotes
3. Describe the idea of alternation of generations using the terms sporophyte, gametophyte, diploid, haploid, meiosis, and fertilization
so a diploid sporophyte goes through meiosis and creates hapliod spores which grow into gametophytes which produces gametes which go through fertilization to make a diploid sporophyte
4. How do the sporophyte and gametophyte generations differ from bryophytes, ferns, gymnosperms, and angiosperms?
the siz of the gametophytes reduce and the size of the sporophytes increase
5. Why do some scientists include green algae as a plant and why do others exclude this group?
because some types of algae are classified as protists and some scientists believe that green algae are the first plants; share many characteristics with larger, more complex plants
Do bryophytes have vascular tissue?
How does this lack of vascular tissue affect bryophytes size and structures?
they are close to the ground because it is harder to get nutritents to them; they can only get water one meter above ground
7. Draw and describe the alternation of generations in a typical moss. Be sure to include the sporophyte, gametophyte, archegonia, antheridia, sporangium, and what is necessary for fertilization to occur.
spores grow into gametophyets and depending on if the gametophytes an archegonia (eggs) or an antheridia (sperms); water is neccessary for fertilization to occur because the sperm has to swim over to the egg and then they make a young sporophyte which grows and has a sporangium which produces spores
where the eggs are made
where the sperm is made
spore capsule; contains haploid spores
What types of cells are found in vascular tissue and how does this change the structure and size of these plants?
tracheids; tissues: xylem and phloem; they are ablt to grow taller because the vascular tissue helps move fluids through there bodies
tubelike cells with thick cell walls strenghted by lingin- makes cell walls rigid
tissue that carries water upward from the roots to every part of a plant
transports solutions of nutrients and carbs produce by photosynthesis
Describe a ferns lifecycle and what is required for this lifecycle to be successful.
sporangium goes trhough meiosis and produces spores which grow into young haploid gametophytes; antheridium and archegonium make sperms and egg; sperm needs a thin film of water to swim over to the egg and then a diploid sorophyte plant begins to grow into a frond which contains sporangium
What is the first group to have seeds?
What advantage does a seed have to a plant?
do not require water for fertilization; protects embryo; transfer of sperm by pollination
11. Describe the lifecycle of a gymnosperm (conifer/ pine tree).
two diploid ovules in each cone scale go through meiosis and now there is 4 haploid cells; then pollen grains are inserted in the scale and then fertilization occures and there is a new sporophyte which grows into a seed which grows into a germinated seed, then seedling and then mature sporophyte which relizes either a pllen cone or contains a seed cone
where the male gametophyte is contained
transfer of pllen from the male reproductive structure to the female reproductive structure
surrounds and protects embryo and keeps the contents of the seed from drying out
structures in which female gametophytes devlope
a structure which the pollen grain begins to grow if it lands near an ovule; contains two haploid sperm nuclei- one disintegrates
What are the benefits of fruit and flowers to angiosperms? How do they affect their lifecycle?
flowers contain ovaries which surround and protect the seeds;after fertilization, flowers develop into fruits that surround, protect and help disperse seeds
how do fruits and flowes affect the lifecycle of an angiosperm?
flowers attract animals who carry pollen with them; pollination here is much more efficient than wind pollination
single clotyledon seeds; parallel veins; floral parts in 3x; vasuclar bundles are scattered; fibrous (shallow) roots
two cotyledon seeds; branched veins; floral parts in 4x or 5x; vasuclar bundles in a ring; taproot (deep)
grows, makes seeds, dies; life span of one year
takes two years for flower to grow, have seeds and die
woody or herbaceous stems; come back every year
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