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AP BIO CH. 9 & 10
Terms in this set (50)
Eukaryotic chromatin is composed of...?
DNA and proteins
Compared to most prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells typically have..?
more DNA molecules and larger genomes
During mitosis in animal cells, at which phase do centrioles begin to move apart?
Density dependent inhibition is explained by which of the following?
as cells become more numerous, the cell surface proteins of adjacent cells bind to each other and send signals that inhibit cell division
Most animal cells exhibit anchorage dependence, which means that in order to divide...?
cells must be attached to a substrate or extracellular matrix of a tissue
In the figure 9.3, mitosis is represented by which numbered parts of the cycle?
In the figure 9.3, G1 is represented by which numbered parts of the cycle?
I & V
In figure 9.3, which number represents the point in the cell cycle during which chromosomes are replicated?
In figure 9.3, G2 is represented by which numbered parts of the cycle?
Researchers began a study of a cultured cell line. Their preliminary observations showed them that the cell line did not exhibit either density-dependent inhibition or anchorage dependence. What could they conclude right away?
the cells show characteristics of tumors
The best conclusion concerning delta is that the cells...?
are actually in the G0 phase
Which of the following is the most plausible explanation for the difference in time spent in S phase by beta and gamma?
gamma contains more DNA than beta
Which image displays the chromosomal composition of one daughter nucleus at telophase of mitosis?
What is the correct chromosomal condition for a nucleus at prophase of mitosis?
Beginning with a fertilized egg (zygote), a series of five cell divisions would produce an early embryo with how many cells?
Human produce skin cells by mitosis and gametes by meiosis. The nuclei of skin cells produced by mitosis will have...?
twice as much DNA as the nuclei of gametes produced by meiosis
At which phase of mitosis do the sister chromatids become daughter chromosomes?
Where do the microtubules of the spindle originate during mitosis in animal cells?
Where are the motor proteins that move chromosomes toward the poles of the mitotic spindle located?
on the kinetochores
What is a cleavage furrow?
a groove in the plasma membrane between daughter nuclei
Why do neurons and some other specialized cells divide infrequently?
They have been shunted into G0
Which is the first checkpoint in the cell cycle where a cell will be caused to exit the cycle if this point is not passed?
For a chemotherapeutic drug to be useful for treating cancer cells, which of the following is most desirable?
It targets only rapidly dividing cells
Which of the following is a true statement about sexual versus asexual reproduction?
In sexual reproduction, individuals transmit 50% of their genes to each of their offspring
Which of the following is true of a species that has a chromosome number of 2n = 16?
Each cell has eight homologous pairs
Which of the following is an example of alternation of generations?
a diploid plant (sporophyte) produces, by meiosis, a spore that gives rise to a multicellular, haploid plant (gametophyte) by meiosis
Which of these is a way that the sexual life cycle increases genetic variation in a species?
by allowing crossing over
After telophase 1 of meiosis, the chromosomal makeup of each daughter cell is...?
haploid, and the chromosome are each composed of two chromatids
Independent assortment of chromosomes during meiosis is a result of...?
the random and independent way in which each pair of homologous chromosomes lines up at the metaphase plate during meiosis 1
Refer to the drawing in figure 10.2 of a single pair of homologous chromosomes as they might appear during various stages of either mitosis or meiosis. Which diagram represents anaphase 1 of meiosis?
Refer to the drawings in figure 10.2 of a single pair of homologous chromosomes as they might appear during various stages of either mitosis or meiosis. Which diagram represents anaphase II of meiosis?
If a horticulturist breeding gardenias succeeds in having a single plant with a particularly desirable set of traits, which of the following would be her most probable and efficient route to establishing a line of such plants?
clone the plant asexually to produce an identical one
Which of the following types of cells would be produced by meiosis?
a haploid animal cell
The somatic cells of a privet shrub each contain 46 chromosomes. To be as different as they are from human cells, which of the following must be true ?
genes of privet chromosomes are significantly different from those in humans
In a human karyotype, chromosomes are arranged in 23 pairs. If we choose one of these pairs, such as pair 14, which of the following do the two chromosomes of the pair have in common?
length, centromere position, staining pattern, and traits coded for by their genes
Which of the following happens during meiosis I?
Homologous chromosomes of a pair are separated from each other.
Chromatids are separated from each other during which of the following processes?
during both mitosis and meiosis II
Which of the following events occurs in meiosis but not in mitosis?
synapsis of chromosomes
When we see chiasmata under a microscope, that lets us know that which of the following processes has occurred?
To visualize and identify meiotic cells at metaphase 1 with a microscope, what would you look for?
pairs of homologous chromosomes all aligned at the cells center
For a species with a haploid number of 23 chromosomes, how many different combinations of maternal and paternal chromosomes are possible for the gametes?
approximately 8.4 million
During which process does independent assortment of chromosomes occur?
during meiosis 1 only
Which of the following statements best describes how often crossing over occurs in humans?
at least 1-3 times per chromosome pair
When homologous chromosomes cross over, what is the result?
specific proteins break the two strands of nonsister chromatids and rejoin them
Refer to the life cycles illustrated in figure 10.1, which of the life cycles are typical for animals?
Refer to the life cycles illustrated in figure 10.1, which of the life cycles are typical for plants and some algae?
Refer to the life cycles illustrated in figure 10.1, which of the life cycles are typical for most fungi and some protists?
You have isolated DNA from three different cell types of an organism, determined the relative DNA content for each type, and plotted the results on the graph shown in figure 10.3 which samples of DNA might be from a skin cell arrested in G0 of the cell cycle?
You have isolated DNA from three different cell types of an organism, determined the relative DNA content for each type, and plotted the results on the graph shown in figure 10.3 which samples might represent an animal cell in th G2 phase of the cell cycle?
You have isolated DNA from three different cell types of an organism, determined the relative DNA content for each type, and plotted the results on the graph shown in figure 10.3 which samples might represent a gamete?
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