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36 terms

Pharmacolgy Ch 2

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drug
any chemical used for therapeutic application for treating an illness, symptom, or for diagnostic testing.
active ingredient
pure undiluted for of the chemical or ingredient that produces an effect
inert ingredients
affect or assist the drugs action by adding flavor, bulk, color
safe drug
causes no harmful effects when taken over a long period of time
pharmacognosy
the origin of drugs
pharmacokinetics
how the body processes drugs, what the body does to the drug
absorption-movement of a drug from it's sit eof administration into the blood
distribution-movement of a drug from the blood into the tissues
metabolism-chemical alteration of the dug in the body
excretion-removal of waste products of drug metabolism from the body
pharmacodynamics
drug actions on the body (what the drug does to the body)
pharmacotherapeutics
the effects of drugs in the treatment of disease
toxicology
the poisonous effects of drugs on the body
Medication adminstered routes
enterally-directly into GI system by oral, rectal, or nasogastric tube
parenterally-intradermal or subcutaneous, IM, or IV (inections_
percutaneouly by inhalaing, sublingually, transdermally or topically.
Drug solubility
it's ability to disolve
free or unbound drug
once drug has reached the blood stream and is ready for use by the body
factors that cause variation in absorbtion rate
incorrect administration, ph, absence or presence of food in stomach, fat or lipid solubility, length of contact, inhalation factors, drug concentration
steps used to process drugs
absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion. dependent of age, mental state, route of admin, gener and phy condition of the patient.
half-life drug
time in which half of the initial dose has been metabolised.
drug excretion
occurs most commonly via kidneys
systemic action-
total body effect of a drug that is absorbed into the bloodstream
local action
limited to the site of admin and the tissues immediately surrounding (nose spray)
remote action
effect of a drug on the body at a distant site from admin.
depressant
reduces the activity of the body part
stimulant
increases body functin of activity (laxitives)
irritants
produces inflammation at site application (Efudex irritates skin for destructin of a lesion)
demulcent
soothing action for an irritation (hydrocortisone for skin reaction)
therapeutic
relieve symptoms
diagnostic
testing to pinpoint disease
replacement therapy
replace missing chemicals
supplemental
avoidance of deficiences or to reinforce existing body chemicals
preventive/prophylactic
prevent of lessen the severity of a disease
palliative
reduce the symptoms of a disease but not treat the disease or condition
curative/healing
kill or remove the causative agent of disease
maintenace
maintain a conditin of health put at risk by a disease (insulin for diabetes)
supportive
maintain the body in homeostasis until disease process can be resolved (oxygen therapy
desired effect
expected response
side effects
mild, responses to medications
adverse reactions
imply problems or symptoms more severe than side effects, undesirable and unpredicable
allergic reactions (drug allergies
hypersensitivity reaction to drugs