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any chemical used for therapeutic application for treating an illness, symptom, or for diagnostic testing.

active ingredient

pure undiluted for of the chemical or ingredient that produces an effect

inert ingredients

affect or assist the drugs action by adding flavor, bulk, color

safe drug

causes no harmful effects when taken over a long period of time


the origin of drugs


how the body processes drugs, what the body does to the drug
absorption-movement of a drug from it's sit eof administration into the blood
distribution-movement of a drug from the blood into the tissues
metabolism-chemical alteration of the dug in the body
excretion-removal of waste products of drug metabolism from the body


drug actions on the body (what the drug does to the body)


the effects of drugs in the treatment of disease


the poisonous effects of drugs on the body

Medication adminstered routes

enterally-directly into GI system by oral, rectal, or nasogastric tube
parenterally-intradermal or subcutaneous, IM, or IV (inections_
percutaneouly by inhalaing, sublingually, transdermally or topically.

Drug solubility

it's ability to disolve

free or unbound drug

once drug has reached the blood stream and is ready for use by the body

factors that cause variation in absorbtion rate

incorrect administration, ph, absence or presence of food in stomach, fat or lipid solubility, length of contact, inhalation factors, drug concentration

steps used to process drugs

absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion. dependent of age, mental state, route of admin, gener and phy condition of the patient.

half-life drug

time in which half of the initial dose has been metabolised.

drug excretion

occurs most commonly via kidneys

systemic action-

total body effect of a drug that is absorbed into the bloodstream

local action

limited to the site of admin and the tissues immediately surrounding (nose spray)

remote action

effect of a drug on the body at a distant site from admin.


reduces the activity of the body part


increases body functin of activity (laxitives)


produces inflammation at site application (Efudex irritates skin for destructin of a lesion)


soothing action for an irritation (hydrocortisone for skin reaction)


relieve symptoms


testing to pinpoint disease

replacement therapy

replace missing chemicals


avoidance of deficiences or to reinforce existing body chemicals


prevent of lessen the severity of a disease


reduce the symptoms of a disease but not treat the disease or condition


kill or remove the causative agent of disease


maintain a conditin of health put at risk by a disease (insulin for diabetes)


maintain the body in homeostasis until disease process can be resolved (oxygen therapy

desired effect

expected response

side effects

mild, responses to medications

adverse reactions

imply problems or symptoms more severe than side effects, undesirable and unpredicable

allergic reactions (drug allergies

hypersensitivity reaction to drugs

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