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psych- ch. 8
Terms in this set (45)
famous physiologist that pointed out that body reactions are similar for many emotions and our subjective experience of emotions is different
English natural scientist who formulated a theory of evolution by natural selection
Edward L. Deci and Richard M. Ryan
American psychologists that developed self-determination theory, which is the optimal psychological functioning and growth can occur only if the psychological needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness are satisfied.
studied the facial expression of emotions for more than four decades.
believed that body signals trigger emotional experience. These signals include physiological arousal and feedback from the muscles involved in behavior.
Humanistic psychologist known for his "Hierarchy of Needs" and the concept of "self-actualization"
the need to determine, control, and organize our own behavior and goals so that they are in harmony with our own interests and values
William Masters and Virginia Johnson
used direct observation and experimentation to study sexual response cycle (4 stages)excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution.
The biological, emotional, cognitive, or social forces that activate and direct behavior.
The view that certain human behaviors are innate and due to evolutionary programming.
The view that behavior is motivated by the desire to reduce internal tension caused by unmet biological needs.
The idea that the body monitors and maintains internal states, such as energy supplies, at relatively constant levels; in general, the tendency to reach or maintain equilibrium.
A need or internal motivational state that activates behavior to reduce the need and restore homeostasis.
The view that behavior is motivated by the pull of external goals, such as rewards.
The view that people are motivated to maintain a level of arousal that is optimal—neither too high nor too low.
The degree to which an individual is motivated to experience high levels of sensory and physical arousal associated with varied and novel activities.
humanistic theories of motivation
The view that emphasizes the importance of psychological and cognitive factors in motivation, especially the notion that people are motivated to realize their personal potential.
simple sugar that provides energy and is primarily produced by the conversion of carbohydrates and fats.
Hormone produced by the pancreas that regulates blood levels of glucose and signals the hypothalamus, regulating hunger and eating behavior.
basal metabolic rate (BMR)
When the body is at rest, the rate at which it uses energy for vital functions, such as heartbeat and respiration.
Hormone produced by fat cells that signals the hypothalamus, regulating hunger and eating behavior.
set point theory
Theory that humans and other animals have a natural body weight, called the set-point weight, that the body defends from becoming higher or lower by regulating metabolism and feelings of hunger.
Body Mass Index (BMI)
A numerical measure of body fat and weight status based on height and weight.
Condition characterized by excessive body fat and a body mass index equal to or greater than 30.0.
the direction of a person's emotional and erotic attraction toward members of the opposite sex, the same sex, both sexes, or neither sex.
hiearchy of needs
Maslow's hierarchical division of motivation into levels that progress from basic physical needs to psychological needs to self-fulfillment needs.
the need to belong
The drive to form and maintain lasting positive relationships that are characterized by mutual concern and caring.
The desire to direct your behavior toward excelling, succeeding, or outperforming others at some task.
Deci and Ryan's theory that optimal human functioning can occur only if the psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness are satisfied.
the desire to engage in tasks that are inherently satisfying and enjoyable, novel, or optimally challenging; the desire to do something for its own sake.
External factors or influences on behavior, such as rewards, consequences, or social expectations.
A complex psychological state that involves a subjective experience, a physiological response, and a behavioral or expressive response.
The capacity to understand and manage your own emotional experiences and to perceive, comprehend, and respond appropriately to the emotional responses of others.
The most fundamental set of emotion categories, which are biologically innate, evolutionarily determined, and culturally universal.
Emotion dimension reflecting the degree to which emotions involve a relationship with another person or other people.
An almond-shaped cluster of neurons in the brain's temporal lobe, involved in memory and emotional responses, especially fear.
The attribution of human traits, motives, emotions, or behaviors to nonhuman animals or inanimate objects.
Social and cultural regulations governing emotional expression, especially facial expressions.
James-Lange theory of emotion
The theory that emotions arise from the perception of body changes
facial feedback hypothesis
The view that expressing a specific emotion, especially facially, causes the subjective experience of that emotion.
two-factor theory of emotion
Schachter and Singer's theory that emotion is the interaction of physiological arousal and the cognitive label that we apply to explain the arousal.
cognitive appraisal theory of emotion
The theory that emotional responses are triggered by a cognitive evaluation
The beliefs that people have about their ability to meet the demands of a specific situation; feelings of self-confidence.
4 components of emotion
subjective experience, physiological reponse, and a behavioral or expressive response.
involves a milder emotional state that is more general and pervasive, such as gloominess or contentment
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