Upgrade to remove ads
Prelim 1 Review (Fall 2019)
Terms in this set (49)
Did all the chemical elements we see in the universe today get created at the moment of the Big Bang?
No, the Big Bang resulted in the formation of only hydrogen and helium. Heavier elements came later after stars formed and when stars exploded.
How are stars formed?
Stars started forming after the intense heat of the Big Bang cooled. Cold hydrogen and helium began condensing into large-mass objects due to gravitational attraction. Once the object's mass became very large, the gravitational compression within the center of the object created pressure and temperatures extreme enough to ignite thermonuclear fusion reactions. These thermonuclear fusion reactions produced heat and star-light.
Are new stars still being born today?
How was our moon formed?
A Mars-sized object hit Earth, and the ejected material eventually coalesced to form the moon.
According to our current scientific understanding, where did most of the water that fills the Earth's oceans come from?
If you were on a boat at 10N and 160W, which ocean would you be in?
If you scaled the Earth down to the size of a beach ball (1/2-meter diameter), how thick would the ocean be?
How quickly did life appear on Earth after it cooled and after the oceans filled?
Remarkably quickly (around 500 million years).
Where did atmospheric oxygen come from?
Bacterial photosynthesis, which evolved between 1 billion and 2 billion years after the Earth cooled, produced oxygen gas that filled Earth's atmosphere.
Life on Earth began in the ocean billions of years ago. When did life on land begin?
500 million years ago
In the movie "Your Inner Fish - Part 1", what was the scientist (main character) looking for?
Evolutionary origin of human limbs (arms, hands, and feet)
Does the rigid outer crust of the Earth float on top of the underlying mantle material, or is the Earth's crust more like a rigid outer shell of an egg that does not float?
The crust floats on the underlying mantle material.
How did Alfred Wegner confirm that the continents had drifted over geologic time?
Fossil and mineral belts on separate modern-day continents aligned perfectly when the continents were artificially moved into a single supercontinent.
Why is the symmetric banding of magnetic anomalies along mid-ocean ridges considered to be strong evidence of seafloor spreading?
Because magnetic anomalies are a proxy for the age of the rock, and when dated, they show the crust getting symmetrically older as you move away from either side of the mid-ocean ridge.
What kind of plate tectonic process takes place in deep-sea trenches?
Ocean crust continuously sinks back into the mantle
Driving force for plate tectonic motion?
Mantle convection and slab pull
Are divergent tectonic boundaries only found at mid-ocean ridges?
What kind of plate tectonic process is occurring in the Japanese Island region?
Oceanic crust of one tectonic plate is colliding with oceanic crust of another tectonic plate
What kind of plate tectonic process is occurring in the East Africa region?
Tectonic plate divergence
How were the Cascade Mountains in Washington and Oregon formed?
Tectonic collision between the Juan de Fuca Plate (ocean crust) and the North American Plate (continental crust).
Where are Red Clay seafloor sediments typically found?
Away from coasts in regions of low biological productivity
What can the species identification of microscopic fossil shells that are found in marine sediment layers tell us about ocean conditions in the distant past?
Species extinction through time, past levels of high or low biological productivity, past temperatures of the surface ocean
Chemical isotope ratios (e.g., 18O:16O) found in the calcium carbonate (CaCO3) making up fossils of marine shells can give oceanographers some information about past ocean temperatures.
When you see waves moving rapidly across the ocean surface, the mass of the water associated with each individual wave crest is being moved long distances away from the storm center that initially produced the waves.
Which wave process gives rise to the nice clean sets of waves (of similar wavelength) that come ashore on the north shore of Hawaii from Alaskan storms?
What typically happens to wave energy as it approaches a bay region?
The wave energy is dispersed to produce calmer waves
. If you are caught in a Rip Current, what should you do?
Turn and swim parallel to shore for 10 to 20 meters, and then turn to swim back to shore. And then call Bruce after you catch your breath.
What sets the upper maximum limit on wave height?
What is a storm's fetch?
The diameter of the storm system
How fast does a tsunami wave propagate?
500 miles per hour
Is it always the case that coastal waters first recede away from the shoreline before a large tsunami finally moves in forcefully?
Which force is involved in the creation of the tidal bulge located on the side of the earth that is opposite to the moon?
If the moon is 28.5° above the equator one week, where will it be one week later?
At the equator
According to the figure below, diurnal tides are expected at
When do Neap Tides occur?
During a Half Moon
Why do tides occur in the ocean, but not in ponds and small lakes?
Tidal elevation is mainly drawn up high from a lateral pull/pinch of water far to the side of the direct line between the Earth and the moon. In the case of small lakes and ponds, there is only the direct line of gravity between the moon and Earth and no lateral pull/pinch.
Why do we get rotary tides?
The combination of Coriolis force and blocking by continents
Why do you not get a significant tidal range in Hawaii?
Hawaii is near an amphidromic point
Which of the following is true about the Coriolis force?
The Coriolis force arises from the physical principles related to the conservation of angular momentum.
Is the atmosphere warmed from above by the sun shining down from space or from below by the warm ocean?
From below by the warm ocean
The major wind belts (Trade Winds, Westerlies and Polar Easterlies) are driven, in part, by alternating northward-directed and southward-directed pressure gradients. What other force is needed to produce the observed wind belts?
The Coriolis force
During the transition from spring to summer, what happens to the ocean mixing depth in temperate (mid-latitude) regions as the surface ocean layer is warmed?
Mixing depth becomes shallower
What is Ekman Transport?
The movement of a relatively thin (c.a. 50 meter) slab of surface water to the right of the wind direction (northern hemisphere) in response to wind forcing.
How does the mound of surface water in the middle of the subtropical gyre get formed?
The action of the Trade Winds and the Westerly Winds, respectively, drives Ekman Layers into the middle of the subtropical gyre where it mounds up
How are the subtropical gyres forced to rotate in a clockwise direction in the northern hemisphere and counterclockwise in the southern hemisphere?
The trade winds and the westerly winds pile water into the center of the gyres. This creates a downward pressure force that indirectly leads to the turning of the gyres.
If winds are blowing from north to south along the west coast of the United States (e.g. the Washington, Oregon and California Coasts), would the Ekman Layer move onshore or offshore?
How are deep-water masses identified?
Based on characteristic temperature and salinity signatures
How long does it take for deep ocean water to move from the North Atlantic to the North Pacific?
What would happen if the Meridional Overturning Circulation, also known as the Conveyor Belt Circulation, were to substantially slow down due to climate change?
It would lead to relatively colder temperatures at high latitudes and relatively warmer temperatures at lower latitudes.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Prelim 2 Review
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Capítulo 14: Vocabulario 2
Capítulo 14: Vocabulario 1
Capítulo 13: Vocabulario 2
Capítulo 13: Vocabulario 1