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Prelim 2 Review
Terms in this set (47)
With regard to the global carbon cycle, how does the magnitude of CO2 sequestered by the global ocean through photosynthesis and the magnitude of CO2 released by the global ocean through respiration compare to the magnitude of CO2 emitted by humans through fossil-fuel burning?
Ocean respiration and ocean photosynthesis are each much larger than human emissions.
Net Primary Production is the oceanographic term used to describe the process of photosynthesis (T/F?)
Which light level produces zero Net Primary Production?
Compensation Light Level
Why is primary production in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific higher than in the Western Equatorial Pacific?
The thermocline is shallower in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific.
Why do coastal upwelling regions see seasonal increases in primary production?
Because coastal upswelling is seasonal
Where is the critical depth located relative to the compensation depth?
Why should you thank the ocean for every other breath you take?
Because primary production in the ocean constitutes about half of global primary production.
What do oceanographers mean when they say that marine pelagic ecosystems are strongly size structured?
It means that body size has a strong influence on the trophic level at which a given organism will reside.
What is the level of Exploitation Efficiency for the case of a copepod community that comes out of winter diapaus (hibernation) and is now feeding in the earliest stages of the strong spring phytoplankton bloom in the North Atlantic
Exploitation Efficiency is
Why is the overall production of harvestable fish greater in coastal regions than open ocean regions?
There are fewer trophic steps between primary production and harvestable fish in coastal regions.
In the opening comments of Professor Harvell's guest lecture, she highlighted the magnitude of loss of biodiversity in the ocean. In those comments, she mentioned the magnitude of loss of coral reef cover. How much coral reef cover has been lost in the past 150 years?
Greater than 50%
An important reason given to explain why marine species are disappearing at a faster rate than land species is that marine species have fewer methods to escape rising temperatures relative to land species (T/F?)
Professor Harvell has chronicled the Sea Star Wasting Disease that began in 2013 and continues today. She highlighted the widespread loss of the sun starfish along the entire West Coast of the United States. With the loss of the sun starfish, what animal was released from predation and has seen its population numbers explode?
What did Professor Harvell highlight as a valuable ecosystem service provided by Seagrass Meadows?
Removes harmful bacteria and thereby prevents disease from spreading into coral reefs
In the movie Oil on Ice, what is the 1002 region?
It is a region within the Arctic National Wild Refuge that has special status to allow for oil drilling, if Congress votes to allow drilling.
Where do heterotrophic bacteria get their energy and carbon for growth?
Dissolved organic matter
What is the main contributor to primary production in oligotrophic subtropical gyre regions?
Where does the Biological Carbon Pump operate inefficiently?
In Oligotrophic regions
Which of the following is most true about rocky intertidal communities?
Unique assemblages of species are separated into distinct zones that are arranged sequentially from the lower intertidal to the upper intertidal.
What role does the starfish Pisaster play in rocky intertidal communities?
Maintains high species diversity in the rocky intertidal
What happens to kelp forests when sea otters are removed?
Kelp forests decline
What resource is in short supply in coral reefs and under stiff competition to acquire?
Coral bleaching (and subsequent coral death) begins when normal ocean temperatures:
Increase by about 1C for a few weeks
With an epic-scale effort (larger than World War II mobilization) to rapidly de-carbonize the global energy system and limit global warming to 1.5 ºC, what percentage of coral reefs will still be lost?
What percentage of corals will be lost if global warming reaches 2 ºC?
Modern whales evolved from a land-dwelling ancestor called Pakicetus. When was Pakicetus last running around on land?
53 million years ago
What analogy best describes the effect that increased commercial boat traffic has on whale populations?
A noisy bar or restaurant that prevents social communication across appreciable distances.
Off-shore exploration for oil uses air guns to blast noise that penetrates deep into ocean sediments in search of subsurface pools of oil. The magnitude of the air guns is on the order of dynamite exploding. How often do these air guns blast noise into the ocean?
Once every 10 seconds for several months
Name the three countries that currently use legal loopholes to continue to kill whales in spite of a general international moratorium on whaling?
Norway, Iceland, Japan
What two opposing molecular forces/energies determine the three phases of water (solid, liquid and gas)?
H-bonds and Thermal-Kinetic energy
It is fact that when a given amount of heat energy is added to the surface ocean, the temperature does not rise nearly as much as it would if the same heat energy were added to land or atmosphere. Why is this the case?
Water has an exceptionally large specific heat capacity
What determines surface ocean salinity for a given geographic location?
The difference between Evaporation and Precipitation in the region
Where is surface ocean salinity lowest?
Subpolar North Pacific
The conveyor belt circulation explains, in part, why nitrate and phosphate concentrations in the deep ocean (e.g., bottom waters 4000 meters deep) are:
Low in the deep North Atlantic and high in the deep North Pacific
Oxygen concentration reaches a minimum level just below the sunlit layer (euphotic zone) of the ocean because:
Microbial respiration, fueled by dead organic material raining down from above, consumes oxygen down to low levels.
What is expected to happen to the oxygen minimum zone as global warming increases?
Oxygen concentration in the minimum zone will become lower
What will happen to the acidity of the surface ocean if you bring deep ocean water to the ocean surface?
Acidity of the surface ocean will increase
With business as usual emissions (i.e., without cutting future emissions), what sort of timelines are we facing before polar seas become corrosive to calcium carbonate shells of planktonic organisms and coral reef growth is slowed or stopped altogether?
What is the Walker Circulation Cell?
East/West oriented atmospheric circulation cell that extends across the entire Pacific Ocean.
What happens to the trade winds in the Pacific during the transition from normal conditions to El Niño conditions?
The trade winds slow down or reverse
Why does primary production decrease off the coast of Peru during an El Niño event?
The thermocline moves deeper off the coast of Peru during an El Niño
How can the effects of El Niño conditions in the Pacific be transmitted to the far reaches of the globe?
Variation in the position of the Jet Stream in the atmosphere
What happens to the global-average temperature during an El Niño year?
Global temperature experiences a significant increase during an El Niño year.
How much has the earth warmed since the beginning of the Industrial Era?
How soon might we see the Arctic Ocean completely ice-free during summer periods?
Ice free by as soon as 2035
One of the key goals contained in the Paris COP-21 consensus statement, signed in Paris in 2015 by every single leader of every single nation on Earth, is that we should work to prevent the earth from warming beyond 2ᵒ C. In that same consensus statement, what must happen to global CO2 emissions to stay below a 2ᵒ C warming?
The entire planet has to go to net zero emissions by 2050
What is holding us back from decarbonizing the global energy system?
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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