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AP Chemistry: Unit 5 Kinetics
Terms in this set (50)
What is kinetics?
the study of the speed/rate of a chemical reaction
How is kinetics measured?
the rate at which products are used up OR when products form
What is the collision theory?
rxn only occurs if:
- the particles collide
- must collided with minimum energy (EA)
- reactants must collide with correct orientation
an elementary reaction that involves a single reactant
In regards to concentration (M), when the amount of the reactants increase, or the pressure increases, or the volume increases...
the number of collisions would increase which would increase the rate of reaction
Temperature is directly related to....
the number of collisions and frequency
What does particle size do a reaction?
increase surface area, in other words, when the substances has more of itself exposed by breaking apart into smaller pieces, the number of collisions increase
What is a catalyst?
provides a different pathway for the reaction to occur at a faster rate by lowering the activation energy
What is a reaction rate?
how fast a rxn occurs
The rate are the...
change in concentration over time; enthalpy M (mol/L) / enthalpy T (sec,min,yrs)
What time of slope does an instantaneous reaction have?
What is the reaction rate for disappearance?
What is the reaction rate for appearance?
What is the rate formula to calculate the disappearance rate?
rate = enthalpy[A]/enthalpy T
- subtract the smaller time by the larger time and line up the M of the substance accordingly
How to find the appearance rate of a reaction?
Solve for disappearance, then use the coefficients of the reaction to solve
What is the reaction mechanism?
A reaction takes place in a series of elementary steps, so the sequence of steps are called...
Which reaction mechanism is the rate of the reaction and the rate law dependent on?
the rate determining step; the slowest step (RDS)
What is the rate law?
rate = k[A]^x[B]^y
What is 'k'?
The rate constant; dependent on temperature, the order of reaction, and the concentration of the reactant
K = rate/M
Can the reaction order be predicted?
NO, only calculated
doubling the reactant:
- does not affect the reaction rate
- doubles the rxn rate
- quadruple the rxn rate
What is the unit for zero order?
What is the unit for first order?
What is the unit for second order?
What is the overall order?
The sum of all the orders
the rate is always...
What does the units of k depend on?
the order of reaction
What is the overall rate?
What does RDS account for (slowest step)?
- rate law
- the overall rate
- use of the coefficients to determine order
Are reactants that are zero order included in the rate law?
What is an intermediate in a reaction?
found on the products in step 1, then the reactants in step 2
What is an catalyst in a reaction?
found on the reactants in step 1, then the produtcs in step 2
What is not included in the overall reaction?
Are catalyst included in the rate law?
Are intermediates included in the rate law?
no; must be substituted by reactants that form it
If there is one reactant then there is no catalyst
When are coefficients not taken into account?
- overall reaction for the order
reactants higher than products
products higher than reactants
In a graph, each peak is a...
the lower the peak on a graph
it means the step has a lower activation energy
How to determine the order of graphs?
- find graph with straight line
- look at y-axis
the time it takes for 1/2 the amount substance to decay; this can be 1st or second
In a half-life, what is the difference between first order reaction and second order?
a constant time of decay for first, whereas second order is not constant
the order are...
exponents, so in a problem plug in to find the order
if the M of [A] doubles and the rate doubles, what is the order?
if the M of [A] doubles and the rate 4x, what is the order?
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