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american history final
buckle up cowgirls bc its 2am study time
Terms in this set (239)
define manifest destiny
America's belief that it had the God-given right to the North American land
what areas of the country did america gain from 1840-1848, and what states were created from these areas?
all of the west which formed into cali, arizona, oregon, new mexico, nevada, colorado, wyoming, texas, and parts of kansas
how did the first americans immigrate to texas?
austin led 24 impresarios to Texas for land called old 300. did this bc of a grant from mexican government.
date of texas independence? how long was it a republic? date of statehood?
why was andrew jackson hesitant to annex texas?
it would shift the free and slave balance in the senate and start a war with mexico
how did tyler annex texas and why?
joint resolution so he didnt need two-thirds
why did congress annex texas? (think raven)
Texas was threatening to deal with England and France.
what were the two accomplishments of Tyler's presidency and how do they advance manifest destiny?
Texas annexed- more land
Webster ashburton treaty- US and Canada lines
Dates of Mexican American War
Causes of Mexican War (3)
border lines and recognition of texas as a state.
resentment for history of poor treatment
longing for more land
which treaty ended the mexican-american war? provisions?
New Mexico and California were given to the US for 15 million.
US assumes all debts Mexicans owe US citizens. Recognition to the Rio Grande as Texas border
why the admissions of new territories as a result of the Mexican-American War caused divions?
the new debate was whether they would be free or slave states. It was a catalyst for the Civil War because these slave states wanted more slave states
why did California skip to states status? was it free or slave?
influx of settlers from Gold Rush
cause of the Compromise of 1850? author? terms?
admission of cali
-California became a free state
-slave trade abolished in DC of
-Fugitive Slave Act enacted federally
-DC slavery protected
-NM and Utah organized without regard to slavery
cause of the Kansas-Nebraska Act? Author? Provisions? Effect on Kansas?
Stephen Douglas wanted Southern support for the railroad.
those states would have popular sovereignty and the act would repeal the Missouri Compromise.
it led to Bloody Kansas and people flocked there and hurt people
democrat or republican was anti-slavery?
facts and holding of Dred Scott case?
Scott claims freedom because he lived in free state with an owner. Missouri ruled in 1824 that a slave owner moved to a free state and lives there his slaves will be free. hell's he was not free and he couldn't Sue because he was not a citizen. held he was not free and he couldn't sue because he was not a citizen. repeal the 36 30
election of 1860
Lincoln elected President
first state to secede? date?
december 20, 1860
what act of Lincoln's caused to the firing on Fort Sumter?
Lincoln sent squadron to fort which South assumed was theirs and took as declaration of war
what were the terms of the Emancipation Proclamation? What was Lincoln's purpose in issuing the Emancipation Proclamation?
all slaves in Rebel territory were free if not surrendering before January 5th.
its purpose was to bring back Confederate states. It excluded border states.
-encouraged blacks to join Union
-uplifted northern morale
-prevented British recognition of Confederacy
what was Lincoln's attitude towards slavery?
he believed that slavery was wrong and it should not expand anymore. But he believed it would put her out at self. He did not believe that blacks and whites were equal.
who crafted the Anaconda Plan? What was its purpose? two purposes of Mississippi?
blockade Southern ports and capture Mississippi
split Confederacy and ship through New Orleans
North and South advantages?
north - population (twice of the South), food (geared towards corn and such South was cash crop), manufacturing (
5), railroads (
south - leadership (history of west point)
why did the Union want the Mississippi?
split and ship
what is two ways in which the homefront and South is more difficult? how was north eco better?
battles and so wreckage.
build government from scratch
became more industrialized
State created as a result of War? Unconstitutional?
Lincoln did not ask state legislature
Sherman's two purposes in launching march to sea?
destroy supplies the Confederacy couldn't use it
show Southerners they were losing
causes of the Civil War? (4) (lsss)
-Sectionalism-many soldiers fought with the area they were born and not what they believed in.
-States' rights- south believe because they voluntarily joined you as they could voluntarily leave. northerner said it was perpetual when constitution was ratified
-Slavery- slavery was in an integral part of The Agrarian economy of South.
-leadership failures- extremist were able take hold of the war; no compromises
how did Lincoln and Johnson differ with the Radical Republicans? who did they believed should bear the ultimate responsibility?
Lincoln and Johnson believed the South should be welcome in. That they never left in the first place because they never accepted the succession.
Radical Republicans believed they were conquered enemies and they should repay
right to vote
the bringing of an indictment against a federal official
The Entity which prepares the articles of impeachment
House of Representatives
The Entity which conducts the impeachment trial
laws passed during Reconstruction which allowed blacks we jailed for vagrancy and hired out to Plantation to pay off fines semicolon prohibited blacks from voting, holding office, ect.
Radical Republicans move from North to hold political offices in South
Radical Republicans from south who ruled during Reconstruction
vigilante group who began in the South during Reconstruction
klu klux klan
system farming that was a South main economic response to the devastation caused by the Civil War
the political organization founded after the Civil War That Grew until it controlled most of New York's political affairs
the leader of the corrupt political organization
William Boss Tweed
the dude who was a cartoonist who brought down the corrupt political organization
why was Andrew Johnson impeached?
the Senate just like him and created the tenure of office act. he violated it and was impeached
why did the seven Republicans vote for Johnson?
they knew impeachment would set precedent for Senate controlling the president's as a puppet. Destroy separation of powers under Constitution
provided the right to vote shall not be a bridge by the us or any state on the basis of race color or previous condition of servitude
granted blacks full citizenship in the US and the states where they lived
apply the due process clause of the Constitution to the states
which two Provisions have the most used in lawsuits?
due process - no state may take private protection property life or Liberty without due process of law
equal protection - or deny equal protection to any person
what are two positive accomplishments of the radical government of the South? Why did the southerners still hate them?
infrastructure and public schools
still military occupation and denied suffrage
two reasons why Grant was considered a poor president?
pass it and let Congress run the government
politically correct Administration
lack of political experience
what are three important far-reaching results of the Civil War?
end of slavery slaves are free
solidly Democratic 100 years
federal powers expanded
four causes of industrial growth after civil war? (spin)
-population tripled which meant net more supplies necessary and more Workforce
-Innovative Spirit lets new machines industrial experience. new Communications like Telegraph telephone radio
-sympathetic government made High tariffs to encourage National trade and immigration laws that made less composition and more Workforce
-new energy like oil and electricity
men who enrich themselves at the expense of others through aggressive business practices
the cast of Industry we associate with oil refining
the company John Rockefeller began
Standard Oil Co
the name of the business practice which controls all of One segment of an industry
the captain of industry we associate with the consolidation of steel industry and creation of the first billion-dollar Corporation
the captain of industry who controlled much of the nation shipping by 1860
the captain of industry who created the textile and tobacco Industries in New South
James B Duke
a legal device by which a Board of Trustees is empowered to make decisions and control the operations of a whole group of companies
invented the lightbulb phonograph and movie
leader in developing hydroelectric power in the south
James B Duke
the name of the business practice which involves controlling every aspect of an industry from production of raw materials to shipping
businessman who controlled the steel industry for mining through production
law which virtually eliminated the spoils system
court order requiring somebody to do something or not to do something
form of government in which the government owns the means of production
Urban evangelist to use music to attract and win over a crown is evangelism campaigns
the labor union that organized unskilled workers by industry
socialist leader of the Railway Union
labor union which organized craft unions for skilled workers most achievement was 8 hour work day
man who coined the phrase survival of the fittest
author of the Origin of Species
the process through which all species have supposedly struggled in evolved
the year Origin of Species was published
what are the four issues that dominated American politics from the 1870s the end of the century?
regulation of trusts, Civil Service, tariff revision, government corruption,
what does the Sherman Antitrust law provide?
banned formation of monopolies declared contract in Restraint of trade illegal
what was the Court's holding In munn versus Illinois
State could regulate through police if public and nature though privately owned
what people groups were included in the new immigrants who immigrated to America during the Gilded Age?
East Europeans and Chinese
what were two objections that Christians have Darwinism?
black scientific credibility and no biblical truth
what did the 1862 Homestead Act do to help settle the West?
gave a hundred and sixty Acres out for anyone who lived there for five years. Encouraged settling
what was the goal of the United States fighting the Indian Wars? what was two factors that kept the Indians losing?
they wanted to expand their land and their manifest destiny
they killed the buffalo
and made unfair treaties with the Indians so they didn't understand
what is the goals of American foreign policies in the last 19th century? (3)
defend the Western Hemisphere
provide new economic opportunities through trade
define imperialism. List two negative into positive factors associated with it. Examples of American imperialism?
imperialism is the extension of power from a country or people group over another country or people group
South America and China
what was the name given to the antifa movement China? What was the Catalyst for the event? How was peace restored?
spheres of influence in China
sent troops to resolve
what are the causes of the Spanish-American War? (cuty)
USS Maine blew up
Cuban Rebel mistreatment
what land mass was the single largest American acquisition? What was this purchase called?
What islands in the Pacific did acquire in 1867?
Hawaii Philippines Midway Cuba Puerto Rico
define progressivism. List three ways progressives sought to achieve Reform movement. What belief about man was Progressive Movement promised on?
ideological movement favoring social reform through education political engagement and Democratic action
all men were good, so more men in the government means a better government. And people get better with time
what are three ways progressives sought to promote direct democracy?
Direct election of senators
Prohibited the manufacture, sale, and distribution of alcoholic beverages
Repeal of Prohibition
what is a muckraker? how they leave to reform
they are journalists to expose corruption in government and businesses. pointed out Injustice
what are three presidents who governed America during the Progressive Era?
Roosevelt Taft Wilson
what did Teddy Roosevelt call his domestic agenda?
what was the significance of Roosevelt's intervention in the Coal Miner's strike of 1902
Washington threatened of the owners with Federal Force rather than the workers. The workers comply to a 10% pay raise. This was the first time the federal government acted as a mediator and a waiver dispute. Cole is greatly needed
the greatest failure of progressivism was in what arena
race relations. Jim Crow laws
compare contrast the Jim Crow laws versus Black Codes.
social segregation V vagrancy
what Supreme Court case upheld "separate but equal" facilities
Plessy versus Ferguson
what is the name of the association established in 1909 to fight legal battles on behalf of African Americans
what is Teddy Roosevelt's quote for his foreign agenda?
speak softly and carry a big stick
how long did it take to build the Panama Canal? how much did it cost?
What was the addition to the Monroe Doctrine saying the U.S would interfere in South America for domestic issues?? What did it do?
who was the leading representatives of progressive education? What is the philosophy movement did he lead
what are three ways in which progressives sought to improve education
field trips and Labs experience learning over memorization
child chooses what they want to learn
what are the four causes of World War 1 (MAIN)
Communist Revolution 1917
-Food conservation during WWI
-"Gospel of a Clean Plate"
-"Wheatless Wednesdays", "Meatless Tuesdays", etc
Selective Service Act
Law passed by Congress in 1917 that required all men from ages 21 to 30 to register for the military draft
A period of increased stock trading and rising stock prices
a market in which prices are falling, encouraging selling.
buying a stock by paying only a fraction of the stock price and borrowing the rest
1925 trial of a Tennessee schoolteacher for teaching Darwin's theory of evolution
A system in which society, usually in the form of the government, owns and controls the means of production.
therapist who credits trauma and mental disturbances later in life with early sexual disturbances
Conservative beliefs in the Bible and that it should be literally believed and applied
Central Powers of WWI
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire
allies of ww1
Britain, France, and Russia- Later joined by Italy
battle in which are power and tanks are used for the first time
how did the fact that Americans The Melting Pot in the British blockade of Germany factored into America's decision about whether to enter ww1?
America is full of Germans and Scotch, who hate the British, who wanted to side with the Germans. It is also full of British and French people who wanted to side with the French.
but the blockade made it so that America could not trade with Germany so it leans toward British trade
what's the sussex pledge? what is the Zimmermann Telegram?
Sussex Pledge a pledge from the US that is German sunk another non commercial ship, they would Engage The War
Zimmerman Telegram is a pledge from the Germans saying that if Mexico would help Germany they would give Mexico America if they won the war
who proposed the Fourteen Points? Why? Which ones were the Treaty of Versailles?
part of his moral missionary
League of Nations and self-determination
what were the three provisions of the Versailles treaty which were most offensive to Germany?
war guilt clause
drawing of territorial lines without regard to nationality
what were three problems which worried Americans after the war?
new enemies with socialism
employment for soldiers
agricultural Market Readjustment
what two foreign policies concerns in America have in the 1920s
peace and economy
what are two means America sought to maintain peace in the 1920s?
Washington Naval treaty - limited ships
Kellogg Bryan - literally made War illegal
circular flow of money after World War 1
u.s. was loaning money to Germany. Germany is paying off reparation payments to Britain and France. Britain and France or paying back war debts to America.
Republican presidents during office of 1920s
harding coolidge hoover
holding of Schenk versus United States
the freedom of speech could be restricted if the words represented a "clear and present danger.
put young unmarried men to work and reforestation is soil conservation products under the supervision of the army
Civilian Conservation Corp
an agency charged with ensuring the bank deposits of the Americans against lost
Federal reservation Act
they organized skilled laborers into a labor union
act which instituted old age pensions and unemployment insurance
Social Security Act
a nationalistic militaristic totalitarian mass movement that profits from discontent
Site of Japanese surrender
USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay
name given to laws under FDR are to come back from depression
American General who commanded troops in Southwest Pacific
Supreme Allied Commander
Dwight D Eisenhower
famous German general demanded axis forces
the tactic created by the CIO to gain concessions in labor negotiations
first battle in World War II in which u.s. took part
name given to Coalition of Japan Germany and Italy during World War II
FDR's 3 R's
Relief, Recovery, Reform
term given to Hitler's Mass extermination of Jews
turning point of war in Pacific Japanese code broken
Battle of Midway
largest sea Battle in History critical blow
Battle of Leyte Gulf
what were the four causes of the Great Depression
-circular flow of money
why couldn't Hoover take action against the banking crisis?
he was unpopular, and FDR was widely popular. he became a lame duck
what problem arose in the final days before Roosevelt's presidency?
what did FDR do to combat this crisis?
went off the gold system
stopped all exportation of gold
Roosevelt try to pack the court with justices. What the problem?
describe separation of powers and the balance between the Senate and the
what happened at the 1938 Munich meeting?
Hitler got sudetenland in return for not conquering anymore
what were the three forces that kept the United States out of World War II
isolationist history - America has a history of retreating into itself after Wars. Us didn't want to be involved in another War.
war debts - America was still recovering financially from the last war. European powers be there buying a weapons with American Credit as a boost for US economy. Us expected it to be paid back. It's also created animosity
Great Depression - America the attention was focused on the domestic crisis rather than International Fair
what event sparked the American involvement in World War II? why was this not a complete success for the Japanese?
carriers were out doing maneuvers
to what did Roosevelt Churchill and Stalin agreed to at the Yalta meeting? How has someone's action prevented him from that in eastern europe?
agreed to further democracy in Europe
he already set up puppet governments
African Mission Against Irwin. foothold to attack Italy. first battle us engaged in
June 6th, 1944
Europe Reclamation to take back entire continent from Hitler
Battle of the Bulge
December 6th 1944
Hitler's last attempt to make a dent in the Allied Forces. Made a bold 50 MI. push back by January
Battle of Guadalcanal
first time America went on the offensive. Started island hopping
American strategy taking small Islands closer and closer to Japan. US established air bases and areas to refuel bomber plane. This allowed American bomber missions closer to Japan.
battle Leyte Gulf
largest naval battle in history. Japan started kamikazes
one of the bloodiest battles in the war. Secondary foothold near Japan. Marine battle
The U.S. Army in the Pacific had been pursuing an "island-hopping" campaign, moving north from Australia towards Japan. On April 1, 1945, they invaded Okinawa, only 300 miles south of the Japanese home islands. By the time the fighting ended on June 2, 1945, the U.S. had lost 50,000 men and the Japanese 100,000.
what did the parties agree at Potsdam Conference
conclusion of WW2
how many people lost their lives as a result of World War II? how many Americans lost their lives?
what did the nazi-soviet non-aggression pact provide?
Germany wouldn't attack Russia in Russian would get the Baltic countries
a campaigner practice and endorse the use of unfair allegations, lies, and innuendos
privilege granted by law to the government is responsible for protecting
blacks refused to ride buses to protest black segregation on public transport
JFK's legislative agenda
largest civil rights protest
March on Washington
Amendment would sacrifice biblical trees for Unity
a policy providing economic aid to countries to prevent communist takeovers
Mutual defense pact on 10 Western European nations
period of tension and competition between the US Soviet Union and their allies
a term coined by Winston Churchill describe the Soviet Union's installation of puppet governments in Europe
includes delegates from all member nations and meets annually
military Alliance organized to counter NATO
the plan to restore the economy of Western Europe after World War II which immunized the region against communism
leader of nationalists in China Civil War
commander of the UN forces in Korea
mine is division between North and South Korea
leader of communist forces in China's Civil War
consists of five permanent members with veto power over you and proposals
widespread fear of communism
second Red Scare
Cuban Exiles and CIA has failed attempt to invade Cuba
Bay of Pigs
dictator who brought communism into the Western Hemisphere
permitted states to pass right-to-work laws
taft-hartley act in 1947
name of Truman's legislative agenda
Supreme Court case ordering an end to segregation School
Brown versus Board of Education
attempts by blacks to secure the rights and exercise of civil rights
Civil Rights Movement
theory that if one communist Nation fell in southeast all of them would
bureaucracy in ministration of the United Nations
policy of conceding territory to Soviets were resisting further aggression
Federal program designed to send skill volunteers overseas
term given to the massive rise in birth rates between 1945 and 1964
East Germany constructs this in 1961 to stop the steady flow of East Germans in the West Germany
a rose is a civil rights leader
Miranda v Arizona
Supreme Court held that criminal suspects must be informed of their right to consult with an attorney and of their right against self-incrimination prior to questioning by police.
Gideon v. Wainwright
A person who cannot afford an attorney may have one appointed by the government
American plan allowing communism to remain where it was but resist spreading
Engel v. Vitale
banned formal prayer in schools, government would not make any religion the 'official' religion.
president who created interstate highway system
why is UN ineffective?
became sounding board for anti-American values limits action and has no authority to force people to recognize it
How were German and Berlin immediately divided after World War II? What did this division due to fuel the Cold War?
a US Britain and France V communist East. Berlin wall and Truman are dropping supplies
what year did US recognize communist China?
what did the u.s. do to Aid the nationalists in China
money and supplies
what is the name of intense competition between united states in the USSR
true or false: Nixon was Jewish
false. We've never had a Jewish president
in what year and what country did United States lose the autonomy on the atomic bomb?
how did Truman respond to Russia creating an atomic bomb?
created the h-bomb which is a hundred times more powerful
how was Korea divided after World War II?
38th parallel. communist north.
how to trim and respond to North Korea invading South Korea?
Works through the UN Security Council for troops
why couldn't Russia veto korean war?
what made the Korean War an "entirely new war"?
China enter The Fray
how did the Korean War end?
same lines before
what happened to Vietnam as the result of an International Conference in Geneva?
but Vietnam between communist and Democratic South
what happened in Cuba in 1959?
Fidel Castro set up a communist government in Cuba
what confrontation between the u.s. and Cuba card in October 1962?
Cuban Missile Crisis
how was cuban crisis resolved?
Kennedy made dealings with USSR and he promised he take his missiles out of turkey if they took those out of Cuba
what was the "blockade" around Cuba called?
what is a right-to-work law? What is a union shop?
state law that bans Union shops.
required union members to be hired
who won the election of 1960? why was this dude distinct
youngest at 43 years old and he was the first Catholic President
who is the first president who accepted civil rights is for blacks has an issue? What are you do when an attempt to end discrimination?
Truman. He pointed judges and the end of military discrimination
what happened to Little Rock Arkansas in 1957?
governor of Arkansas would not allow in the Little Rock Nine into a desegregated school. He used National troops. Eisenhower use federal troops to stop it
what acts bought the Montgomery Bus Boycott?
Rosa Parks would not move to the back of the bus
what is civil disobedience? What two tactics did Martin Luther use?
disobeying laws one sees as unfit or an unjust
nonviolent resistance and civil disobedience
what impact did the March on Washington have on civil rights legislation?
JFK's support the Civil Rights bill
what advantage did Lyndon B Johnson bring to the presidency? how many bills did Johnson succeed in passing? Which two bills were the most significant?
he had 12 years in the Senate, so he knew how to deal with Congress.
Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Voting Rights Act of 1965
what did the Voting Rights Act of 1965 provide? What is the 24th Amendment provide?
sent Federal officials and states to regulate black voters and Outlaw literacy test.
24 amendment outlawed poll tax
what is judicial activism?
interpretation of Law and Constitution broadly to address judges perceived major social problems. Takes away function of Congress
what is Nixon's two greatest triumphs in foreign affairs?
detante - easing tension
How did Australia’s early history differ from that of other British colonies?
How did the Enlightenment lead to a more secular outlook?
What was the Suez Crisis?
What four influences blended to form Hellenistic culture?
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