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the storage and retrieval of what has been learned or experienced.


the transforming of information so the nervous system can process it.


the process by which information is maintained over a period of time.


the process of obtaining information that has been stored in memory.

Sensory memory

very brief memory storage immediately following initial reception of a stimulus.

Short-term memory

memory that is limited in capacity to about seven items and in duration by the subject's active rehearsal.

Maintenance Rehearsal

a system for remembering involving repeating information to oneself without attempting to find meaning in it.


the process of grouping items to make them easier to remember.

Semantic memory

knowledge of languages, including its rules, words, and meanings.

Episodic memory

memory of one's life, including time of occurrence.

Declarative memory

memory of knowledge that can be called forth consciously as needed.

Procedural memory

memory of learned skills that does not require conscious recollection.


memory retrieval in which a person identifies an object, idea, or situation as one he or she has or has not experienced before.


memory retrieval in which a person reconstructs previously learned material.

Reconstructive memory

memory that has been simplified, enriched, or distorted, depending on an individual's experiences and attitudes.


the act of filling in memory gaps.


conceptual frameworks a person uses to make sense of the world.

Eidetic memory

the ability to remember with great accuracy visual information on the basis of short-term exposure.


fading away of memory over time.


blockage of a memory by previous or subsequent memories.

Elaborate rehearsal

the linking of new information to material that is already known.

Mnemonic devices

techniques for using associations to memorize and retrieve information.

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