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22 terms

Psychology Chapter 10- "Memory and Thought"

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Memory
the storage and retrieval of what has been learned or experienced.
Encoding
the transforming of information so the nervous system can process it.
Storage
the process by which information is maintained over a period of time.
Retrieval
the process of obtaining information that has been stored in memory.
Sensory memory
very brief memory storage immediately following initial reception of a stimulus.
Short-term memory
memory that is limited in capacity to about seven items and in duration by the subject's active rehearsal.
Maintenance Rehearsal
a system for remembering involving repeating information to oneself without attempting to find meaning in it.
Chunking
the process of grouping items to make them easier to remember.
Semantic memory
knowledge of languages, including its rules, words, and meanings.
Episodic memory
memory of one's life, including time of occurrence.
Declarative memory
memory of knowledge that can be called forth consciously as needed.
Procedural memory
memory of learned skills that does not require conscious recollection.
Recognition
memory retrieval in which a person identifies an object, idea, or situation as one he or she has or has not experienced before.
Recall
memory retrieval in which a person reconstructs previously learned material.
Reconstructive memory
memory that has been simplified, enriched, or distorted, depending on an individual's experiences and attitudes.
Confabulation
the act of filling in memory gaps.
Schemas
conceptual frameworks a person uses to make sense of the world.
Eidetic memory
the ability to remember with great accuracy visual information on the basis of short-term exposure.
Decay
fading away of memory over time.
Interference
blockage of a memory by previous or subsequent memories.
Elaborate rehearsal
the linking of new information to material that is already known.
Mnemonic devices
techniques for using associations to memorize and retrieve information.